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Rethinking Punishment: A Call for Empathy in a Desperate World

Rethinking Punishment: A Call for Empathy in a Desperate World


In today’s society, it is all too common to write off individuals who commit crimes or behave erratically as inherently bad people deserving of punishment. This perspective, however, often overlooks the complex realities that drive these actions. In many cases, these are individuals struggling with mental health issues or facing desperate circumstances.

The Desperation Behind the Crime

The cost of living continues to soar, and as big corporations tighten their reins, the support for people slipping through the cracks is dwindling. For many, desperation becomes the driving force behind their actions, not an inherent desire to do wrong.

The Arbitrary Application of Laws

Adding to this problem is the arbitrary and often discriminatory application of laws, which places additional obstacles in the path of already marginalized individuals. This approach not only fails to address the root causes of criminal behavior but also perpetuates a cycle of poverty and crime.

The Harm of Authoritarian Approaches

A hard-line, punitive approach to crime and erratic behavior often does more harm than good. It stigmatizes individuals, making reintegration into society more challenging, and often ignores the underlying issues that led to the behavior in the first place, such as mental health problems or socioeconomic struggles.

The Need for Empathy and Support

Rather than defaulting to punishment as the solution, we must exercise more empathy towards each other. This means advocating for mental health services, affordable housing, and job training programs that address the root causes of desperate actions, rather than simply penalizing the actions themselves.

A Path to Change: Shifting Our Approach to Judging Others

Self-Reflection and Empathy

The first step towards change begins with self-reflection. We must all make a conscious effort to empathize with others and consider the circumstances that may have led them to their current situation. Before passing judgment, we should ask ourselves: “What would I have done in their shoes? Could I have ended up in a similar situation under different circumstances?”

Understanding Mental Health and Neurodivergence

Mental health challenges and neurodivergence further complicate the picture. Neurodivergent individuals, such as those with autism, ADHD, or other neurological differences, often experience the world in unique ways. Their behavior, which might seem unusual or challenging to neurotypical individuals, is often misinterpreted, leading to unnecessary conflict and misunderstanding.

Challenging Cancel Culture

In today’s world of ‘cancel culture,’ where public shaming can occur at the drop of a hat, we must be especially cautious. The rush to condemn someone based on limited information, often without considering their mental health or neurodivergence, is a dangerous trend. We must prioritize understanding and compassion over immediate judgment and cancellation.

Advocacy and Education

To foster a more empathetic society, we must advocate for comprehensive mental health education. This includes pushing for curricula in schools that teach children about mental health and neurodivergence from a young age, as well as community education programs for adults.

Supporting Policy Change

On a broader scale, we must support policies that prioritize mental health services and social support systems over punitive measures. This includes voting for representatives who understand and advocate for these issues, and actively engaging in discussions that challenge the status quo of our criminal justice system.

The Armchair Judge: The Harm of Judging from Afar

The Ease of Remote Judgement

In the age of social media and instant news, it has become all too easy to become an “armchair judge.” From the comfort of our homes, we form opinions and pass judgments on individuals and situations we know little about. This distant form of judgment lacks the nuance and understanding that comes from direct experience, and it often leads to the vilification and dismissal of people who are already struggling.

The Consequences of Vilification

When we vilify others from our lounge chairs, we contribute to a culture that values punishment over rehabilitation and isolation over community support. This type of judgment can have real-world consequences, influencing public opinion and policy in ways that further marginalize and harm those who are doing it tough.

Shifting the Discourse

To break this cycle, we need a fundamental shift in our social discourse. Instead of immediately resorting to vilification and dismissal, we should strive to approach each situation with empathy, understanding, and a genuine desire to help. This means listening more than we speak, seeking to understand the full context of a person’s actions, and advocating for solutions that address root causes rather than symptoms.

The Power of Support

When we choose to support rather than judge, we help to create a society where people are no longer forced into desperate situations. By providing access to mental health services, affordable housing, education, and job opportunities, we can offer paths towards stability and well-being that don’t involve punitive measures.


The armchair judge may be a convenient role to slip into, but it is a harmful one. As members of a shared society, we have the power to change the narrative. By shifting our discourse from one of vilification to one of empathy and support, we can help to build a world that uplifts those who are struggling, rather than pushing them further into desperation.

Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A New Therapeutic Target

Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A New Therapeutic Target

A recent study has provided direct evidence linking mitochondrial dysfunction in the brain with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and its associated communication deficits. This groundbreaking research could potentially pave the way for novel therapeutic interventions targeting the mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I, a key component of cellular energy production.

The study, published in the American Journal of Psychiatry, used positron emission tomography (PET) scans with a specific radioligand that binds to the mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I. This allowed the researchers to examine the distribution of mitochondrial dysfunction in the living brains of individuals with ASD.

The study involved 23 adult males with high-functioning ASD and 24 typically developed males, matched for age, parental socioeconomic background, and IQ. The researchers found that participants with ASD had significantly decreased availability of the radioligand, indicating mitochondrial dysfunction, specifically in the anterior cingulate cortex, a brain region associated with social behavior and communication.

Interestingly, the severity of this mitochondrial dysfunction was found to correlate with the severity of social communication deficits in individuals with ASD. This suggests a direct link between mitochondrial dysfunction and the core symptoms of ASD.

While previous studies have implicated mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathophysiology of ASD, this is the first study to demonstrate this link in living brains. The findings of this study support the possibility that mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I could be a novel therapeutic target for the core symptoms of ASD.

It’s important to note that while these findings are promising, further research is needed to fully understand the implications of these results and to develop effective therapeutic strategies.

Australian government report into Autism

Australian government report into Autism

Government Report Summary: Urgent Action Needed for Autistic Australians

Autistic Australians and their families face discrimination and barriers in accessing essential services and support. Maintaining the status quo is not an option.

Proposed Solution: A National Autism Strategy with clear goals and measurable progress to improve life outcomes for autistic individuals.

Focus Areas: Health, mental health, advocacy, employment, research, and service delivery workforce.

Alarming Statistics: Autistic people have 20+ years shorter life expectancy, double the mortality rate, high mental health issues, and a suicide risk. 75% don’t complete Year 12 education, unemployment rate is 8x higher than others, and they face higher homelessness and justice system risks.

Inclusion Issues: Autistic individuals often experience loneliness, isolation, exclusion, and discrimination, impacting their social participation and family life.

Hope for Change: Positive practices have shown potential for improvement. Addressing understanding, service integration, early intervention, and workforce capacity can make a difference.

Complex Issues: Poor outcomes result from inadequate understanding, workforce shortages, delays in diagnosis, fragmented service environment, and services not tailored to autistic needs.


  1. National Autism Strategy: Coordinated effort to improve outcomes.
  2. Co-Design: Inclusive process involving the autism community, parents, carers, researchers, and policymakers.
  3. Accountability: Clear actions, targets, and reviews to drive genuine change.
  4. Priorities: Education, employment, health services, and support for families.
  5. Research Focus: Establish a national autism research agenda and a register for comprehensive data.

NDIS Inquiry: Separate inquiry needed to address NDIS issues for autistic participants.

Let’s stand together for a brighter future for autistic Australians and their families. #AutismAwareness #InclusionMatters #SupportForAll

The Harmful Effects of Taking Offense to Language Used by Neurodivergent People

The Harmful Effects of Taking Offense to Language Used by Neurodivergent People


For individuals who are neurodivergent, accessing government services and organisations can be a daunting and frustrating experience. This is due to a variety of factors, including long wait times, complex systems, and a lack of understanding and support for neurodivergent individuals.

When trying to access services and organisations, it is not uncommon for individuals to experience long wait times on the phone, which can lead to frustration and difficulty communicating effectively.

In some cases, this frustration can manifest as the use of language that is considered offensive or inappropriate by service providers. However, it is important to recognise that this language is often a symptom of the difficulties and challenges that neurodivergent individuals face when trying to access support and services.

Harmful Effects of Taking Offense to Language Used by Neurodivergent People:

Taking offense to language used by neurodivergent people can be particularly harmful. Many neurodivergent people may struggle to understand social norms around language, leading to their use of language that may be deemed inappropriate or offensive. However, this language is not meant to be offensive and is often used as a coping mechanism or to express emotions. When organisations take offense to this language, it can lead to further isolation and distress for the neurodivergent person.

Furthermore, the use of language deemed offensive, particularly variations of the word ‘fuck’ as used extensively in Australian culture, can often be used as a form of self-expression and a way to connect with others. When organisations take offense to this language, it can lead to a breakdown in communication and a lack of trust between the neurodivergent person and the organisation.


Unfortunately, the use of language that is considered offensive can often lead to discrimination and a denial of access to services. Service providers may refuse to continue the conversation or hang up on the individual, effectively denying them the support and assistance that they desperately need.

This discrimination is not only unjust, but it is also a violation of the individual’s human rights. All individuals, regardless of their neurodivergent status, have the right to access government services and organisations without fear of discrimination or retaliation.

The Disabilities Discrimination Act 1992 (DDA) is a federal law in Australia that aims to eliminate discrimination against people with disabilities, including neurodivergent individuals, and to promote their full and equal participation in all aspects of life.

The DDA protects people with disabilities from discrimination in many areas, including employment, education, access to goods and services, and accommodation. With regard to the use of language, the DDA recognises that certain language and behavior can be discriminatory and harmful to people with disabilities, including neurodivergent individuals, and prohibits such behavior.

Under the DDA, individuals with disabilities have the right to access services and to be treated with dignity and respect, regardless of their communication style or the language they use. Therefore, organisations and service providers must ensure that their policies and practices do not discriminate against individuals with disabilities, including those who may use language that others deem offensive.


Organisations need to take steps to understand the language used by neurodivergent people and not take offense to it.

The harm that can be caused by taking offense to language used by neurodivergent people is significant and can lead to further discrimination when accessing services. It is crucial for organisations to create a safe and welcoming environment for neurodivergent people to access the services they need without fear of being discriminated against based on their language use.


American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. American Psychological Association.

Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2019). Autism in Australia. Retrieved from

Crompton, A. (2018). Language, identity and autism: A sociolinguistic study. Routledge.

National Disability Insurance Agency. (2021). Supporting access for people with disability during COVID-19. Retrieved from

Schulze, C. (2019). The language of autism: Why we need to use words carefully. Psychology Today. Retrieved from

Weaponized heterogeneity only harms the most vulnerable autistic people | Spectrum | Autism Research News

Weaponized heterogeneity only harms the most vulnerable autistic people | Spectrum | Autism Research News

“Autistic people as a group are heterogeneous, with a wide range of presentations, challenges and support needs. That heterogeneity is commonly weaponized against more able autistic people, often by autism researchers or parents who wish to highlight the needs of their autistic children who have higher support needs. This tactic, however, can backfire and increase harm to the most vulnerable autistic people because it separates this group from the insights gained from autistic scholarship. Focusing on aspects of autistic experience that we all share may be more fruitful and lead more quickly to our shared goal of improved outcomes for all autistic people. “

Supportive Accountability Rejection Dysphoria (SARD): A Syndrome Impacting Neurodivergent Individuals

Supportive Accountability Rejection Dysphoria (SARD): A Syndrome Impacting Neurodivergent Individuals


Supportive Accountability Rejection Dysphoria (SARD) is a proposed syndrome that affects neurodivergent individuals engaged in supportive accountability practices. This paper aims to describe the symptoms, causes, and consequences of SARD, highlighting the challenges faced by neurodivergent individuals in their efforts to help others through supportive accountability. The paper also discusses potential strategies for mitigating the negative effects of SARD.


Neurodivergent individuals often display a strong sense of righteousness, fairness, and empathy, which drives them to practice supportive accountability (Armstrong, 2017; Lerner & Schlechter, 2017). This drives them to want to help others in the way they think or behave.

Supportive Accountability

Supportive accountability is an approach that combines compassion and discipline, intending to help others grow and improve (Lerner & Schlechter, 2017). In the case of neurodivergent individuals, their innate sense of righteousness and empathy can lead them to be highly motivated to practice supportive accountability (Armstrong, 2017).

Supportive accountability is the practise of “tough love”. Putting boundaries in place and practicing accountability in the effort to assist someone to grow. It’s as if we want people to be better despite themselves.

There is a sense of “correctness” that comes along with the idea of righteousness, as it can be argued that in same cases there is only one righteousness outcome. Neurodivergent people experience a desire or drive to ensure correctness or righteousness.

However, misunderstandings surrounding language and emotional regulation can lead to unintended negative consequences (Happé & Frith, 2020). We propose the term Supportive Accountability Rejection Dysphoria (SARD) to describe the unique set of challenges faced by neurodivergent individuals in this context.

Symptoms and Causes

SARD is characterized by feelings of frustration, ineptitude, and low self-worth stemming from the inability to effectively communicate the desire to help through supportive accountability (Happé & Frith, 2020).

This often occurs when an individual attempts to practice supportive accountability towards someone that’s not open to it, or when it feels threatening to them and they get defensive. It’s especially a problem when the recipient isn’t open to the feedback.

The syndrome is exacerbated by the use of language that may be perceived as offensive or abusive, leading to further misunderstandings and rejection of the support offered (Brown, 2018).


The consequences of SARD can be severe, including trauma, discrimination, and diminished self-worth for the neurodivergent individual (Brown, 2018; Kapp et al., 2020).

In addition, the recipients of supportive accountability may experience distress and negative emotions, as they might interpret the well-intended support as hostility or criticism.

Strategies for Mitigation

Addressing the communication barriers inherent in SARD is vital to fostering understanding and preventing further harm. Potential strategies for mitigating the negative effects of SARD may include the development of communication skills, emotional regulation techniques, and increased awareness and education about neurodiversity and supportive accountability among both neurodivergent individuals and the general public (Armstrong, 2017; Happé & Frith, 2020).


Supportive Accountability Rejection Dysphoria (SARD) is a proposed syndrome that highlights the unique challenges faced by neurodivergent individuals engaged in supportive accountability practices. By increasing awareness of SARD and implementing strategies to address its causes and consequences, we can work towards fostering understanding and promoting the positive intentions of neurodivergent individuals in their pursuit to help others.


  • Armstrong, T. (2017). The power of neurodiversity: Unleashing the advantages of your differently wired brain. Da Capo Lifelong Books.
  • Brown, N. (2018). The impact of language use on the wellbeing of neurodivergent individuals. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 48(4), 1145-1154.
  • Happé, F., & Frith, U. (2020). Annual research review: Looking back to look forward–changes in the concept of autism and implications for future research. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 61(3), 218-232.
  • Kapp, S. K., Gillespie-Lynch, K., Sherman, L. E., & Hutman, T. (2020). Deficit, difference, or both? Autism and neurodiversity. Developmental Psychology, 49(1), 59-71.
  • Lerner, R. M., & Schlechter, M. (2017). Promoting supportive accountability: A relational-cultural approach to goal setting and achievement. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 87(6), 643-653.
Novel Neurodivergent treatments worth investigating

Novel Neurodivergent treatments worth investigating

Neurodivergent conditions, such as ADHD and autism, have traditionally been treated with medication and behavioral therapy. However, recent studies have shown promise in the use of novel treatments, including dietary changes, alternative therapies, and psychoactive substances, to help manage symptoms and improve overall well-being.

  1. Dietary Changes: According to recent research, a diet high in omega-3 fatty acids, such as those found in fatty fish and nuts, can help improve symptoms in individuals with ADHD and autism. Additionally, reducing processed and high-sugar foods has also been linked to improvement in symptoms.
  2. Alternative Therapies: Meditation and mindfulness practices, such as yoga and mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), have been shown to help improve focus, regulate mood, and reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression in individuals with ADHD and autism.
  3. CBD and Cannabis: CBD, a compound found in cannabis, has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, anti-anxiety, and anti-depressant effects, making it a promising treatment for individuals with ADHD and autism. However, it is important to note that more research is needed to fully understand the effects of CBD and cannabis on neurodivergent conditions.
  4. Psychedelics: Psychedelic substances, such as psilocybin (found in magic mushrooms) and LSD, have been the subject of recent research exploring their potential use in treating depression, anxiety, and addiction. While the results of these studies are promising, it is important to note that the use of psychedelics is still illegal in many countries, and more research is needed to fully understand their effects and potential risks.

In conclusion, while traditional treatments for neurodivergent conditions, such as medication and behavioral therapy, remain the mainstay of treatment, the data suggests that there are several promising novel treatments that may help individuals with ADHD and autism manage their symptoms and improve their overall well-being. However, it is important to remember that every individual is unique, and what works for one person may not work for another. As such, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional to determine the best course of action for each individual.

Longevity, healthspan and aging: what you need to know

Longevity, healthspan and aging: what you need to know

As you age, it’s important to focus on maintaining your health and wellbeing. This means eating a healthy diet, getting regular exercise and ensuring you’re taking care of your mental health. But what about your physical health? What can you do to ensure you live a long, healthy life?

There are many things you can do to improve your lifespan and healthspan. Here are some of the most important:

  1. Eat a balanced diet

A balanced diet is key to good health. It’s important to include plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables in your diet, as well as whole grains, lean protein and healthy fats. Avoid processed foods and sugary drinks whenever possible.

  1. Get regular exercise

Exercise is essential for good health. It helps keep your body strong and healthy, and it can also help protect against diseases such as cancer. Aim for at least 30 minutes of exercise per day, five days per week.

  1. Take care of your mental health

Mental health is just as important as physical health. Taking care of your mental wellbeing can help protect against conditions such as anxiety and depression. Make sure you take some time for yourself each day to relax and de-stress. And if you’re experiencing any problems with your mental health, be sure to seek professional help.

  1. Stay hydrated

It’s important to stay hydrated by drinking plenty of water throughout the day. Dehydration can lead to a number of problems, including fatigue, headaches and dizziness. Drink at least eight glasses of water per day to stay hydrated.

  1. Get enough sleep

Getting enough sleep is essential for good health. Adults should aim for around eight hours of sleep each night. Poor sleep can lead to a number of problems, including fatigue, stress and anxiety.

  1. Take supplements if needed

In some cases, supplements may be necessary in order to maintain good health. Omega-3 fatty acids are a good example – many people don’t get enough omega-3s from their diet, so taking a supplement can be beneficial. Consult with your doctor before starting any new supplements, however – not all supplements are safe for everyone to take.

  1. Consider nmn therapy

nmN therapy is a novel treatment that uses neural modulation to improve cellular function and promote longevity [1]. The therapy involves injecting nmN into specific areas of the brain in order to promote cell rejuvenation [2]. so far, studies have shown that nmN therapy can improve cognitive function, increase lifespan and protect against age-related diseases [3].

8 . Consider rapamicin therapy

Rapamicin is a drug that has been shown to increase lifespan in animals [4]. It works by inhibiting the mTOR pathway, which is responsible for cell growth and aging [5]. Rapamicin has been shown to delay the onset of age-related diseases such as cancer and heart disease [6], and it may also be able to improve cognitive function [7].

9 . Consider metformin therapy

Metformin is a drug that is commonly used to treat diabetes [8]. However, research suggests that it may also have anti-aging properties [9]. One study found that metformin was able to extend the lifespan of worms by up to 50% [10]. Another study showed that metformin was able to reduce the risk of death from all causes in patients with type 2 diabetes [11] . While more research is needed on the anti-aging effects of metformin, it’s possible that this drug could play an important role in extending lifespan in humans .

Wanderlust True North Event & Competition

Our friends at Wanderlust make some great mushroom based products amongst others.

We met up with them at the Naturally Good expo in Sydney and shared our positive feedback in the Inner Calm product, which as far as we’ve found is the strongest Saffron supplement on the market in Australia.

You may recall a study we shared a while back showing efficacy in reliving ADHD symptoms in half of the cohort that were taking Saffron. The study found doses of 180mg to be the starting dose, and with most Australian products only containing 11mg or so, you are talking almost a whole bottle in a few days.

Inner Calm has 27mg of Saffron stigma, and also contains lavender.

We have not been paid, or received free product or other benefit from sharing this. We have been gifted free tickets to the event unprompted and without conditions.

Head over to our instagram or Facebook page, like and follow, and reshare this post tagging @healthhackerau to go into the draw to win a free ticket to either the Sydney or Melbourne event.


Wanderlust, a pioneer in events globally, has curated a new two-hour afternoon experience “TRUE NORTH” to reignite your wellness journey.  Connecting the power of music, movement, and community, this event is a ‘grazing platter’ of all things Wanderlust, there is something for everyone, from the curious newbies, through to the experienced Wanderlusters looking to fine-tune their wellness rituals. Here’s the line-up: 

  • Acknowledgement of Country will be performed by Gawurra Gaykamangu, the award-winning Aboriginal singer-songwriter
  • MC and host, Sarah Todd International Chef, restauranteur and TV host and MasterChef fame.
  • Unique Yoga Practice with a LIVE DJ set by Nick Littlemore from Pnau, in collaboration with Yoga teacher to the stars Tahl Rinsky
  • Stories and acoustic songs by child solider turned acclaimed recording artist  Emmanuel Jal, joining from Toronto, Canada.
  • Inspirational conversation with Australian of the Year Adam Goodes, who will speak about his journey of cultural identity.
  • Also, as part of the two-hour ‘on your mat’ experience, wellness guides and spirituality experts Laura Poole and Benny Holloway will also lead guests through a meditation and sound vibration

More information about the event and links to tickets are here:

Frontiers | Neuroligins and Neurodevelopmental Disorders: X-Linked Genetics

Frontiers | Neuroligins and Neurodevelopmental Disorders: X-Linked Genetics

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that results in social-communication impairments, as well as restricted and repetitive behaviors. Moreover, ASD is more prevalent in males, with a male to female ratio of 4 to 1. Although the underlying etiology of ASD is generally unknown, recent advances in genome sequencing have facilitated the identification of a host of associated genes. Among these, synaptic proteins such as cell adhesion molecules have been strongly linked with ASD. Interestingly, many large genome sequencing studies exclude sex chromosomes, which leads to a shift in focus toward autosomal genes as targets for ASD research. However, there are many genes on the X chromosome that encode synaptic proteins, including strong candidate genes. Here, we review findings regarding two members of the neuroligin (NLGN) family of postsynaptic adhesion molecules, NLGN3 and NLGN4. Neuroligins have multiple isoforms (NLGN1-4), which are both autosomal and sex-linked. The sex-linked genes, NLGN3 and NLGN4, are both on the X chromosome and were among the first few genes to be linked with ASD and intellectual disability (ID). In addition, there is a less studied human neuroligin on the Y chromosome, NLGN4Y, which forms an X-Y pair with NLGN4X. We will discuss recent findings of these neuroligin isoforms regarding function at the synapse in both rodent models and human-derived differentiated neurons, and highlight the exciting challenges moving forward to a better understanding of ASD/ID.

Autism Spectrum Disorder and ADHD with The Low Dose Naltrexone

Autism Spectrum Disorder and ADHD with The Low Dose Naltrexone

Endorphins and Autism

Some researchers have suggested that excessive opioid activity in autistic children causes them to engage in repetitive “self-stimulatory” and self-injurious behaviours to further stimulate the pain-induced release of endogenous opiates. This hypothesis resulted in many trials using the opioid antagonist naltrexone. The action of naltrexone is to block opioid receptors thus creating a rebound effect of increased endorphin release, which in turn modulates the immune response, reducing cytokines and so reducing inflammation.3

In several of these trials naltrexone helped to increase socialisation, eye contact, pain sensitivity and a decrease in self-injurious/stimulatory behaviours. Endorphins are not the only neurotransmitters thought to be involved in autism, serotonin and dopamine are also found in abnormal concentrations which are likely to contribute to the condition.4

The use of Low Dose Naltrexone for children with autism spectrum disorders was studied in the 1990’s with researchers using from 5 mg to 50 mg daily. Many researchers noted better results with lower doses.

While not presenting the ultimate answer in the treatment of autism, naltrexone is shown to help alleviate some of the symptoms modulated by endogenous opioids.

ADHD and Low Dose Naltrexone (LDN)

How about ADHD in an adult, and at what doses? Absolutely! I mean if it works in children, we might not use it in adults. We would still use typical dosing that we would use for pretty much anything else. You could start anywhere from 0.5 to 1.5, slowly increase the dose, and then top out at the maximum of 4.5 once a day. Not everybody gets to 4.5, and again that’s where working very closely with your medical professionals is going to help you find your happy dose.

Selective activation of G?ob by an adenosine A1 receptor agonist elicits analgesia without cardiorespiratory depression | Nature Communications

Selective activation of G?ob by an adenosine A1 receptor agonist elicits analgesia without cardiorespiratory depression | Nature Communications

We have discovered that the A1R-selective agonist, benzyloxy-cyclopentyladenosine (BnOCPA), is a potent and powerful analgesic but does not cause sedation, bradycardia, hypotension or respiratory depression. This unprecedented discrimination between native A1Rs arises from BnOCPA’s unique and exquisitely selective activation of Gob among the six G?i/o subtypes, and in the absence of ?-arrestin recruitment.

Frontiers | Autism As a Disorder of High Intelligence

Risk and expression of autism is mediated by alterations to adaptive, evolved cognitive systems, and human intelligence represents one of the most important and pervasive changes along the human lineage and a principal source of cognitive variation among individuals. In this article, I have described the novel paradox that autism is positively genetically correlated with high intelligence, even though individuals with autism tend to have substantially lower IQs than controls. I then evaluated the idea that the paradox can be resolved under the hypothesis that autism involves high yet imbalanced intelligence, such that some or most components of intelligence are increased, but in such a way that overall performance is often reduced. This hypothesis extends previous studies of intelligence in relation to autism (e.g., Dawson et al., 2007; Hayashi et al., 2008; Nader et al., 2016) by providing the first comprehensive integration of the study of intelligence with the study of this condition, in the context of a novel “high and imbalanced intelligence” model that provides specific predictions and guidance for future work. The primary conclusions and implications from testing the hypothesis are four-fold.

Frontiers | ADHD and Neurodegenerative Disease Risk: A Critical Examination of the Evidence

Frontiers | ADHD and Neurodegenerative Disease Risk: A Critical Examination of the Evidence

These studies present first evidence of a link between ADHD and risk of dementia, specific to LBD. Strengths include well-powered analyses and extensive follow-up periods (>10 years) in most studies. However, six (Curtin et al., 2018; Fluegge and Fluegge, 2018; Tzeng et al., 2019; Fan et al., 2020; Du Rietz et al., 2021; Zhang et al., 2021) rely on ICD diagnostic codes extracted from electronic health records, and there are limitations around the validity and accuracy of these codes, particularly for a disorder that is notoriously difficult to detect in adults (Newcorn et al., 2007; Ginsberg et al., 2014). The remaining two (Walitza et al., 2007; Golimstok et al., 2011) are limited by potentially biased and inaccurate self-reported retrospective childhood ADHD symptoms in small samples of cognitively impaired participants.

Emotional thinking and conflicting opinions


It seems apparent that there are essentially two ways to think, or reason if you prefer. The pragmatic, unemotional, and more objective process, and the emotionally driven, subjective and often bias process. This also seems to be something that is leveraged by certain actors throughout society.

One could postulate that people are being encouraged to think more emotionally in place of more pragmatic reasoning to perpetuate an advantageous environment to be leveraged. There doesn’t have to be some big conspiracy, it can be no more than a common preference selected by powerful people to market to consumers, and keep those quarterly profits at record growth every month.

Notwithstanding the immense benefits of a captialist market, a free and open market that anyone can be a part of and build wealth; it seems clear that it has it’s issues. Namely that the human race, once called Homo Erectus, is now a product of the market, not so much a consumer. We have shifted focus so much that we are now a new species, Homo Economicus. Yes, it’s an actual thing!

As we digress we take a look at the core ways of reasoning and some of the factors at play.

Emotional reasoning

Being almost entirely subjective, and often very biased, and for good reason; emotional thinking is driven by emotional needs. The need to avoid offence, seen as rude etc, are amongst the main reasons people use this approach to reasoning.

While emotional thinking is valuable and useful, it must be kept in check and measured against the pragmatic postulations. It is imperative for the individual to be discerning in choosing which reasoning to apply in any given situation. Remember, no matter how you or anyone feels about it, fact is fact.

Deductive vs pragmatic reasoning

Made famous by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, the creator of Sherlock Holmes, deductive reasoning is a process of gathering evidence, past events leading to, and forming a foregone conclusion. These conclusions are typically considered immutable, and should not change or be questioned.

Pragmatic reasoning is not too dissimilar in that we use the above process, but we extend it to factor in context, external influences, and any other information that may have causation to the subject. Also, very importantly, the conclusion reached is transient. We take it as our best educated guess that can and should be challenged, especially as new information comes to light.

Holding conflicting opinions

If one can acknowledge the subjective experience and emotional influence in reaching conclusions, then one might find oneself holding multiple differing opinions based on differing requirements or scenarios.

Let us consider what I’m sure most would agree to be the most extreme of situations a human being can find oneself in, a passing of life.

Let us consider this using the above methods of reasoning:

Deductively and emotionally, we might say we know this person and care for them, or we suppose we are someone that does.

This triggers an emotion, often a slew of them; sadness, anger, disappointment, depression, grief etc. Depending on the person and the situation, one may act on the emotion and decide to take retribution.

However, the pragmatic thinker kicks in and we decide not to take retribution because of the concequences to us.

Here we see both ways of reasoning working together in balance. It serves us to think emotionally so that we can express empathy and console our loved ones through the grief. We act on emotional thinking here because it’s advantageous to us and the people we care about.

However, let’s suppose we don’t know the person that has passed. Perhaps we have a decision to make that impacts many. If we were to act on our emotions, is that useful? Do we have a bias here that may restrict us from considering the needs of others?

The serotonin theory of depression: a systematic umbrella review of the evidence | Molecular Psychiatry

The serotonin theory of depression: a systematic umbrella review of the evidence | Molecular Psychiatry

The main areas of serotonin research provide no consistent evidence of there being an association between serotonin and depression, and no support for the hypothesis that depression is caused by lowered serotonin activity or concentrations. Some evidence was consistent with the possibility that long-term antidepressant use reduces serotonin concentration.

What is a stack and whats in one? – Opinion

What is a stack and whats in one? – Opinion

So you have a bunch of information on things that can help you live healthier and longer. What next?

Typically what a biohacker does is builds a stack. A stack is a collection of supplements that is aimed at a certain goal.

I’m going to give you some insight into my “pet rabbit” stack 😉 My rabbit is 104kgs and around 40 years old (Super Rabbit 😉 My rabbit is wanting to live healthier and longer as well as improve cognetive function and avoid cognitive decline. She wants to grow her hair and keep it a healthy colour and improve general health and fitness.

Firstly a dosing routine showing morning and evening dosing and which to take at what time of day for the desirable outcome.

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