Tag: longevity

Rethinking Punishment: A Call for Empathy in a Desperate World

Rethinking Punishment: A Call for Empathy in a Desperate World


Introduction

In today’s society, it is all too common to write off individuals who commit crimes or behave erratically as inherently bad people deserving of punishment. This perspective, however, often overlooks the complex realities that drive these actions. In many cases, these are individuals struggling with mental health issues or facing desperate circumstances.

The Desperation Behind the Crime

The cost of living continues to soar, and as big corporations tighten their reins, the support for people slipping through the cracks is dwindling. For many, desperation becomes the driving force behind their actions, not an inherent desire to do wrong.

The Arbitrary Application of Laws

Adding to this problem is the arbitrary and often discriminatory application of laws, which places additional obstacles in the path of already marginalized individuals. This approach not only fails to address the root causes of criminal behavior but also perpetuates a cycle of poverty and crime.

The Harm of Authoritarian Approaches

A hard-line, punitive approach to crime and erratic behavior often does more harm than good. It stigmatizes individuals, making reintegration into society more challenging, and often ignores the underlying issues that led to the behavior in the first place, such as mental health problems or socioeconomic struggles.

The Need for Empathy and Support

Rather than defaulting to punishment as the solution, we must exercise more empathy towards each other. This means advocating for mental health services, affordable housing, and job training programs that address the root causes of desperate actions, rather than simply penalizing the actions themselves.

A Path to Change: Shifting Our Approach to Judging Others

Self-Reflection and Empathy

The first step towards change begins with self-reflection. We must all make a conscious effort to empathize with others and consider the circumstances that may have led them to their current situation. Before passing judgment, we should ask ourselves: “What would I have done in their shoes? Could I have ended up in a similar situation under different circumstances?”

Understanding Mental Health and Neurodivergence

Mental health challenges and neurodivergence further complicate the picture. Neurodivergent individuals, such as those with autism, ADHD, or other neurological differences, often experience the world in unique ways. Their behavior, which might seem unusual or challenging to neurotypical individuals, is often misinterpreted, leading to unnecessary conflict and misunderstanding.

Challenging Cancel Culture

In today’s world of ‘cancel culture,’ where public shaming can occur at the drop of a hat, we must be especially cautious. The rush to condemn someone based on limited information, often without considering their mental health or neurodivergence, is a dangerous trend. We must prioritize understanding and compassion over immediate judgment and cancellation.

Advocacy and Education

To foster a more empathetic society, we must advocate for comprehensive mental health education. This includes pushing for curricula in schools that teach children about mental health and neurodivergence from a young age, as well as community education programs for adults.

Supporting Policy Change

On a broader scale, we must support policies that prioritize mental health services and social support systems over punitive measures. This includes voting for representatives who understand and advocate for these issues, and actively engaging in discussions that challenge the status quo of our criminal justice system.

The Armchair Judge: The Harm of Judging from Afar

The Ease of Remote Judgement

In the age of social media and instant news, it has become all too easy to become an “armchair judge.” From the comfort of our homes, we form opinions and pass judgments on individuals and situations we know little about. This distant form of judgment lacks the nuance and understanding that comes from direct experience, and it often leads to the vilification and dismissal of people who are already struggling.

The Consequences of Vilification

When we vilify others from our lounge chairs, we contribute to a culture that values punishment over rehabilitation and isolation over community support. This type of judgment can have real-world consequences, influencing public opinion and policy in ways that further marginalize and harm those who are doing it tough.

Shifting the Discourse

To break this cycle, we need a fundamental shift in our social discourse. Instead of immediately resorting to vilification and dismissal, we should strive to approach each situation with empathy, understanding, and a genuine desire to help. This means listening more than we speak, seeking to understand the full context of a person’s actions, and advocating for solutions that address root causes rather than symptoms.

The Power of Support

When we choose to support rather than judge, we help to create a society where people are no longer forced into desperate situations. By providing access to mental health services, affordable housing, education, and job opportunities, we can offer paths towards stability and well-being that don’t involve punitive measures.

Conclusion

The armchair judge may be a convenient role to slip into, but it is a harmful one. As members of a shared society, we have the power to change the narrative. By shifting our discourse from one of vilification to one of empathy and support, we can help to build a world that uplifts those who are struggling, rather than pushing them further into desperation.


Australian government report into Autism

Australian government report into Autism

Government Report Summary: Urgent Action Needed for Autistic Australians

Autistic Australians and their families face discrimination and barriers in accessing essential services and support. Maintaining the status quo is not an option.

Proposed Solution: A National Autism Strategy with clear goals and measurable progress to improve life outcomes for autistic individuals.

Focus Areas: Health, mental health, advocacy, employment, research, and service delivery workforce.

Alarming Statistics: Autistic people have 20+ years shorter life expectancy, double the mortality rate, high mental health issues, and a suicide risk. 75% don’t complete Year 12 education, unemployment rate is 8x higher than others, and they face higher homelessness and justice system risks.

Inclusion Issues: Autistic individuals often experience loneliness, isolation, exclusion, and discrimination, impacting their social participation and family life.

Hope for Change: Positive practices have shown potential for improvement. Addressing understanding, service integration, early intervention, and workforce capacity can make a difference.

Complex Issues: Poor outcomes result from inadequate understanding, workforce shortages, delays in diagnosis, fragmented service environment, and services not tailored to autistic needs.

Recommendations:

  1. National Autism Strategy: Coordinated effort to improve outcomes.
  2. Co-Design: Inclusive process involving the autism community, parents, carers, researchers, and policymakers.
  3. Accountability: Clear actions, targets, and reviews to drive genuine change.
  4. Priorities: Education, employment, health services, and support for families.
  5. Research Focus: Establish a national autism research agenda and a register for comprehensive data.

NDIS Inquiry: Separate inquiry needed to address NDIS issues for autistic participants.

Let’s stand together for a brighter future for autistic Australians and their families. #AutismAwareness #InclusionMatters #SupportForAll

https://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/Autism/autism/Report

Time-restricted Eating for the Prevention and Management of Metabolic Diseases | Endocrine Reviews | Oxford Academic

Time-restricted Eating for the Prevention and Management of Metabolic Diseases | Endocrine Reviews | Oxford Academic

The article “Time-restricted Eating for the Prevention and Management of Metabolic Diseases” explores the concept of time-restricted feeding (TRF) in animal studies and time-restricted eating (TRE) in humans as an emerging behavioral intervention for the prevention and management of metabolic diseases. The approach involves restricting all calorie intake within a consistent interval of less than 12 hours without explicitly reducing calories.

The article provides an overview of the origin of TRF/TRE, starting with the understanding of circadian rhythms and their role in physiology and metabolism. While circadian rhythms are commonly associated with the sleep-wake cycle and central nervous system rhythms, recent research has revealed the presence of circadian rhythms in peripheral organs, suggesting that adopting a daily short window of feeding could support robust circadian rhythms.

Animal studies have demonstrated the proof of concept for TRF and identified potential mechanisms underlying its benefits. TRF, without reducing caloric intake, has been shown to prevent or mitigate several metabolic diseases in animal models, including obesity, glucose intolerance, hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and age-related decline in cardiac function.

Pilot human intervention studies have reported promising results in reducing the risk of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases through TRE, with or without explicit calorie reduction. Additionally, epidemiological studies have indicated that maintaining a consistent long overnight fast, similar to TRE, can significantly reduce the risk of chronic diseases.

Despite these initial successes, the authors emphasize the need for further clinical and mechanistic studies to implement TRE as a standalone or adjunctive lifestyle intervention for chronic metabolic diseases. They also highlight the importance of developing better methods to monitor and promote compliance to a daily eating pattern in humans to accurately assess the benefits of TRE. Overall, TRF and TRE show potential as effective strategies for metabolic disease prevention and management, but more research is warranted to fully understand their mechanisms and optimize their implementation.

https://academic.oup.com/edrv/article/43/2/405/6371193

The Costly Failure of Lockdowns: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of COVID-19 Mortality

The Costly Failure of Lockdowns: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of COVID-19 Mortality

Abstract:

The COVID-19 pandemic prompted governments worldwide to implement various measures, including lockdowns, to mitigate the spread of the virus. This paper presents a systematic review and meta-analysis conducted by the Institute of Economic Affairs, London, to assess the impact of lockdowns and other COVID-19 restrictions on mortality rates. The analysis is based on empirical evidence from 22 studies encompassing actual measured mortality data, rather than relying on epidemiological modeling. The results demonstrate that lockdowns had a negligible effect on COVID-19 mortality, while imposing significant economic, social, and political costs. The findings emphasize the importance of voluntary behavior changes, such as social distancing, in mitigating the pandemic. This paper calls for a reconsideration of the effectiveness of lockdowns as a primary strategy in controlling future pandemics.

Introduction

The COVID-19 pandemic necessitated the implementation of strict measures, including lockdowns, to curb the spread of the virus. However, the efficacy and impact of these measures remain subjects of debate. This paper aims to critically analyze the mortality outcomes associated with lockdowns, social distancing measures, and other non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of empirical studies.

Methodology

A systematic search and screening procedure were employed to identify relevant studies. Out of 19,646 studies initially identified, 32 studies qualified for further analysis. Of these, 22 studies provided measured mortality data and were suitable for meta-analysis. The analysis focused on comparing the mortality rates during periods of lockdown and stringent NPIs with less strict policies, such as those observed in Sweden.

Results

The meta-analysis revealed that the average lockdowns in Europe and the United States in the spring of 2020 only reduced COVID-19 mortality by 3.2%. This translated into approximately 6,000 avoided deaths in Europe and 4,000 in the United States. Shelter-in-place orders were relatively ineffective, reducing COVID-19 mortality by 2.0%, resulting in approximately 4,000 avoided deaths in Europe and 3,000 in the United States. Specific NPIs implemented in the spring of 2020 reduced COVID-19 mortality by 10.7%, significantly less than estimates derived from epidemiological modeling. This amounted to approximately 23,000 avoided deaths in Europe and 16,000 in the United States.

Discussion

The findings challenge the initial predictions made by modeling exercises, such as those from the Imperial College of London, which estimated millions of lives saved through lockdowns. In comparison to annual flu deaths, the impact of COVID-19 lockdowns appears disproportionately low. The analysis suggests that voluntary changes in behavior, such as social distancing, played a crucial role in mitigating the pandemic. Moreover, the study highlights the substantial economic, social, and political costs associated with lockdowns, including stunted economic growth, increased public debt, rising inequality, damage to children’s education and health, reduced health-related quality of life, increased crime rates, threats to democracy, loss of freedom, and damage to mental health.

Conclusion

Based on the comprehensive evaluation of empirical research, this study concludes that lockdowns were a failed promise. While having negligible health effects on COVID-19 mortality, they imposed disastrous economic, social, and political costs on society. The findings underscore the need to reconsider the effectiveness of lockdowns as a primary strategy for controlling future pandemics. Future pandemic response strategies should focus on voluntary behavior changes, tailored NPIs, and a balanced approach that considers the collateral effects on society.

References:

  • Campbell, J. (2023, June 5). Lockdowns were a costly failure. Retrieved from https://iea.org.uk/publications/did-l…
  • Institute of Economic Affairs. (2022, January). Did lockdowns, Covid restrictions, social distancing measures etc. effect COVID-19 mortality, based on empirical evidence. Retrieved from https://sites.krieger.jhu.edu/iae/fil…
  • NHS Digital. (n.d.). Mental health. Retrieved from https://digital.nhs.uk/services/organ…

Keywords: COVID-19, lockdowns, mortality, non-pharmaceutical interventions, systematic

A novel combination of metformin and resveratrol alleviates hepatic steatosis by activating autophagy through the cAMP/AMPK/SIRT1 signaling pathway | SpringerLink

A novel combination of metformin and resveratrol alleviates hepatic steatosis by activating autophagy through the cAMP/AMPK/SIRT1 signaling pathway | SpringerLink

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent liver disorder that is associated with the accumulation of triglycerides (TG) in hepatocytes. Resveratrol (RSV), as a natural product, and metformin have been reported to have potential lipid-lowering effects for the treatment of NAFLD via autophagy, but the combined effects of both have not yet been studied. The current study aimed to investigate the role of autophagy in the lipid-lowering effects of RSV, alone and in combination with metformin, on the hepatic steatosis model of HepG2 cells and elucidate the mechanism of action. Triglyceride measurement and real-time PCR showed that RSV-metformin reduced lipid accumulation and the expression of lipogenic genes in palmitic acid (PA)-induced HepG2 cells. Additionally, the LDH release assay indicated that this combination protected HepG2 cells against PA-induced cell death through autophagy. The western blotting analysis revealed that RSV-metformin induced autophagy by reducing the expression of p62 and increasing LC3-I and LC3-II proteins. This combination also enhanced cAMP, phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK), and Beclin-1 levels in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, SIRT1 inhibitor treatment inhibited autophagy induced by RSV-metformin, which indicated the autophagy induction is SIRT1-dependent. This study demonstrated for the first time that RSV-metformin reduced hepatic steatosis by triggering autophagy via the cAMP/AMPK/SIRT1 signaling pathway.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00210-023-02520-7

The Harmful Effects of Taking Offense to Language Used by Neurodivergent People

The Harmful Effects of Taking Offense to Language Used by Neurodivergent People

Background:

For individuals who are neurodivergent, accessing government services and organisations can be a daunting and frustrating experience. This is due to a variety of factors, including long wait times, complex systems, and a lack of understanding and support for neurodivergent individuals.

When trying to access services and organisations, it is not uncommon for individuals to experience long wait times on the phone, which can lead to frustration and difficulty communicating effectively.

In some cases, this frustration can manifest as the use of language that is considered offensive or inappropriate by service providers. However, it is important to recognise that this language is often a symptom of the difficulties and challenges that neurodivergent individuals face when trying to access support and services.

Harmful Effects of Taking Offense to Language Used by Neurodivergent People:

Taking offense to language used by neurodivergent people can be particularly harmful. Many neurodivergent people may struggle to understand social norms around language, leading to their use of language that may be deemed inappropriate or offensive. However, this language is not meant to be offensive and is often used as a coping mechanism or to express emotions. When organisations take offense to this language, it can lead to further isolation and distress for the neurodivergent person.

Furthermore, the use of language deemed offensive, particularly variations of the word ‘fuck’ as used extensively in Australian culture, can often be used as a form of self-expression and a way to connect with others. When organisations take offense to this language, it can lead to a breakdown in communication and a lack of trust between the neurodivergent person and the organisation.

Discrimination:

Unfortunately, the use of language that is considered offensive can often lead to discrimination and a denial of access to services. Service providers may refuse to continue the conversation or hang up on the individual, effectively denying them the support and assistance that they desperately need.

This discrimination is not only unjust, but it is also a violation of the individual’s human rights. All individuals, regardless of their neurodivergent status, have the right to access government services and organisations without fear of discrimination or retaliation.

The Disabilities Discrimination Act 1992 (DDA) is a federal law in Australia that aims to eliminate discrimination against people with disabilities, including neurodivergent individuals, and to promote their full and equal participation in all aspects of life.

The DDA protects people with disabilities from discrimination in many areas, including employment, education, access to goods and services, and accommodation. With regard to the use of language, the DDA recognises that certain language and behavior can be discriminatory and harmful to people with disabilities, including neurodivergent individuals, and prohibits such behavior.

Under the DDA, individuals with disabilities have the right to access services and to be treated with dignity and respect, regardless of their communication style or the language they use. Therefore, organisations and service providers must ensure that their policies and practices do not discriminate against individuals with disabilities, including those who may use language that others deem offensive.

Conclusion:

Organisations need to take steps to understand the language used by neurodivergent people and not take offense to it.

The harm that can be caused by taking offense to language used by neurodivergent people is significant and can lead to further discrimination when accessing services. It is crucial for organisations to create a safe and welcoming environment for neurodivergent people to access the services they need without fear of being discriminated against based on their language use.

References:

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. American Psychological Association.

Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2019). Autism in Australia. Retrieved from https://www.abs.gov.au/statistics/health/disability/autism-australia/latest-release#key-findings

Crompton, A. (2018). Language, identity and autism: A sociolinguistic study. Routledge.

National Disability Insurance Agency. (2021). Supporting access for people with disability during COVID-19. Retrieved from https://www.ndis.gov.au/coronavirus/supporting-access-people-disability-during-covid-19

Schulze, C. (2019). The language of autism: Why we need to use words carefully. Psychology Today. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/au/blog/neurodivergent-thinking/201904/the-language-autism-why-we-need-use-words-carefully

The Australian government is about to destroy children’s rights.

The Australian government is about to destroy children’s rights.

If you care about children and their rights you simply must sign this.
The Australian government is about to remove the protection children have in law that assures access to both parents.

The CRC, or Convention on the Rights of the Child, is an international human rights treaty adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1989. The treaty sets out the civil, political, economic, social, health, and cultural rights of children, with the primary aim of ensuring the well-being, development, and protection of children worldwide. The CRC is the most widely ratified human rights treaty, with Australia ratifying it in 1990.

Article 9 of the CRC emphasizes the right of children to maintain contact with both parents, unless it is contrary to the child’s best interests. This principle is reflected in the Family Law Act, which encourages both parents to have a meaningful relationship with their child, so long as it does not compromise the child’s safety and well-being.

An amendment is before the house of representatives now that proposes to remove the only protection children have that ensures maintaining a relationship with both parents is at least partially enforced. The proposed change would exacerbate the prolonged separation from one parent in family law proceedings.

#familylaw #children #childrensrights #humanrights #law #australia

The Greatest Missed Opportunity of Modern Human Civilization: Nutrition for Protection from COVID-19 and its Serious Effects

The Greatest Missed Opportunity of Modern Human Civilization: Nutrition for Protection from COVID-19 and its Serious Effects

Abstract:

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought to the forefront the importance of immunity and its role in fighting infections. While vaccines and other medical interventions are important, there has been a missed opportunity in promoting good nutrition as a key factor in building strong immunity. A growing body of evidence has shown that a balanced and nutrient-rich diet can help prevent and reduce the severity of COVID-19 and other infections. This paper will review the current evidence on the role of nutrition in protecting against COVID-19 and its serious effects, and will highlight the importance of incorporating nutrition into public health strategies.

Introduction:

COVID-19 has been a wake-up call for the world, highlighting the importance of immunity in fighting infections. While many have focused on vaccines and other medical interventions, there has been a missed opportunity in promoting good nutrition as a key factor in building strong immunity. Research has shown that a balanced and nutrient-rich diet can help prevent and reduce the severity of COVID-19 and other infections. Despite this, public health campaigns have not prioritized nutrition as a means of protecting against COVID-19. This paper will explore the evidence on the role of nutrition in protecting against COVID-19 and its serious effects, and will argue for a greater emphasis on nutrition in public health strategies.

Body:

  • I. The role of nutrition in protecting against COVID-19
  • Importance of immune system in fighting infections
  • Evidence linking poor nutrition to increased risk of infection and severity of illness
  • Nutrient deficiencies associated with poor COVID-19 outcomes
  • Specific nutrients that have been shown to benefit immune function and COVID-19 outcomes (vitamin D, vitamin C, zinc, etc.)
  • II. Public health campaigns and the missed opportunity of nutrition
  • Focus on vaccines and medical interventions
  • Limited attention to nutrition in public health campaigns
  • Importance of a holistic approach to public health
  • III. Incorporating nutrition into public health strategies
  • Education and awareness campaigns on the importance of nutrition
  • Availability of nutrient-rich foods in schools, hospitals, and other public institutions
  • Incentives for companies to promote and produce healthier foods
  • Integration of nutrition into healthcare and public health policies

Conclusion:

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought to light the importance of immunity and the role of nutrition in building strong immune function. Despite this, there has been a missed opportunity in promoting good nutrition as a key factor in fighting COVID-19 and other infections. Incorporating nutrition into public health strategies could help prevent and reduce the severity of COVID-19 and other infections, and should be a priority for governments and public health institutions. By prioritizing good nutrition, we can help build a stronger and healthier society.

References:

Calder, P. C. et al. Nutrition and immunity: lessons for COVID-19. Eur. J. Nutr. 59, 1403–1429 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-020-02264-5

Damião, R. et al. Food and nutrition security during the COVID-19 pandemic: a comprehensive overview. Food Sci. Technol. 40, 7–16 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1590/fst.05420

Gombart, A. F., Pierre, A. & Maggini, S. A review of micronutrients and the immune system–working in harmony to reduce the risk of infection. Nutrients 12, 236 (2020). https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010236

Huang, Z. et al. The battle against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): emergency management and infection control in a radiology department. J. Am. Coll. Radiol. 17, 710–716 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacr.2020.03.011

Ismail, M. et al. The potential role of vitamin D in the current COVID-19 pandemic. Brain Behav. Immun. 87, 246–251 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2020.06.001

King, S. et al. The importance of nutrition in aiding recovery from COVID-19. Healthcare 8, 144 (2020). https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8020144

National Health and Medical Research Council. Australian Dietary Guidelines. (2013) Available at: https://www.eatforhealth.gov.au/guidelines/australian-dietary-guidelines-1-5. (Accessed: 23rd Feburary 2022).

Queensland Health. Nutrition and immune function. (2020). Available at: https://www.health.qld.gov.au/news-events/news/nutrition-and-immune-function. (Accessed: 23rd Feburary 2022).

The role of biofield energy treatment on psychological symptoms, mental health disorders, and stress?related quality of life in adult subjects: A randomized controlled clinical trial

The role of biofield energy treatment on psychological symptoms, mental health disorders, and stress?related quality of life in adult subjects: A randomized controlled clinical trial

The role of biofield energy treatment on psychological symptoms, mental health disorders, and stress?related quality of life in adult subjects: A randomized controlled clinical trial

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/share/8JIEKJNQ23RVDQGYU6NE?target=10.1002/jgf2.606

Health effects associated with consumption of unprocessed red meat: a Burden of Proof study | Nature Medicine

Health effects associated with consumption of unprocessed red meat: a Burden of Proof study | Nature Medicine


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Nature Medicine volume 28, pages2075–2082 (2022)

Abstract

Characterizing the potential health effects of exposure to risk factors such as red meat consumption is essential to inform health policy and practice. Previous meta-analyses evaluating the effects of red meat intake have generated mixed findings and do not formally assess evidence strength. Here, we conducted a systematic review and implemented a meta-regression—relaxing conventional log-linearity assumptions and incorporating between-study heterogeneity—to evaluate the relationships between unprocessed red meat consumption and six potential health outcomes. We found weak evidence of association between unprocessed red meat consumption and colorectal cancer, breast cancer, type 2 diabetes and ischemic heart disease. Moreover, we found no evidence of an association between unprocessed red meat and ischemic stroke or hemorrhagic stroke. We also found that while risk for the six outcomes in our analysis combined was minimized at 0?g unprocessed red meat intake per day, the 95% uncertainty interval that incorporated between-study heterogeneity was very wide: from 0–200?g?d?1. While there is some evidence that eating unprocessed red meat is associated with increased risk of disease incidence and mortality, it is weak and insufficient to make stronger or more conclusive recommendations. More rigorous, well-powered research is needed to better understand and quantify the relationship between consumption of unprocessed red meat and chronic disease.

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-022-01968-z

Longevity, healthspan and aging: what you need to know

Longevity, healthspan and aging: what you need to know

As you age, it’s important to focus on maintaining your health and wellbeing. This means eating a healthy diet, getting regular exercise and ensuring you’re taking care of your mental health. But what about your physical health? What can you do to ensure you live a long, healthy life?

There are many things you can do to improve your lifespan and healthspan. Here are some of the most important:

  1. Eat a balanced diet

A balanced diet is key to good health. It’s important to include plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables in your diet, as well as whole grains, lean protein and healthy fats. Avoid processed foods and sugary drinks whenever possible.

  1. Get regular exercise

Exercise is essential for good health. It helps keep your body strong and healthy, and it can also help protect against diseases such as cancer. Aim for at least 30 minutes of exercise per day, five days per week.

  1. Take care of your mental health

Mental health is just as important as physical health. Taking care of your mental wellbeing can help protect against conditions such as anxiety and depression. Make sure you take some time for yourself each day to relax and de-stress. And if you’re experiencing any problems with your mental health, be sure to seek professional help.

  1. Stay hydrated

It’s important to stay hydrated by drinking plenty of water throughout the day. Dehydration can lead to a number of problems, including fatigue, headaches and dizziness. Drink at least eight glasses of water per day to stay hydrated.

  1. Get enough sleep

Getting enough sleep is essential for good health. Adults should aim for around eight hours of sleep each night. Poor sleep can lead to a number of problems, including fatigue, stress and anxiety.

  1. Take supplements if needed

In some cases, supplements may be necessary in order to maintain good health. Omega-3 fatty acids are a good example – many people don’t get enough omega-3s from their diet, so taking a supplement can be beneficial. Consult with your doctor before starting any new supplements, however – not all supplements are safe for everyone to take.

  1. Consider nmn therapy

nmN therapy is a novel treatment that uses neural modulation to improve cellular function and promote longevity [1]. The therapy involves injecting nmN into specific areas of the brain in order to promote cell rejuvenation [2]. so far, studies have shown that nmN therapy can improve cognitive function, increase lifespan and protect against age-related diseases [3].

8 . Consider rapamicin therapy

Rapamicin is a drug that has been shown to increase lifespan in animals [4]. It works by inhibiting the mTOR pathway, which is responsible for cell growth and aging [5]. Rapamicin has been shown to delay the onset of age-related diseases such as cancer and heart disease [6], and it may also be able to improve cognitive function [7].

9 . Consider metformin therapy

Metformin is a drug that is commonly used to treat diabetes [8]. However, research suggests that it may also have anti-aging properties [9]. One study found that metformin was able to extend the lifespan of worms by up to 50% [10]. Another study showed that metformin was able to reduce the risk of death from all causes in patients with type 2 diabetes [11] . While more research is needed on the anti-aging effects of metformin, it’s possible that this drug could play an important role in extending lifespan in humans .

Mescaline: The forgotten psychedelic

Mescaline: The forgotten psychedelic

Abstract
Introduction
Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine) is one of the oldest hallucinogens, with evidence of use dating back 5700 years. Mescaline is a naturally occurring alkaloid found in cacti, mainly in the peyote cactus (Lophophora williamsii) and in the cacti of the Echinopsis genus. Since the prohibition of psychoactive substances in the early 70s, research on mescaline and other classical psychedelics has been limited.

Objectives
This article aims to review the pharmacology and behavioural effects of mescaline, focusing on preclinical and clinical research.

Findings
Mescaline is a serotonin 5HT2A/2C receptor agonist, with its main hallucinogenic effects being mediated via its 5HT2A receptor agonist action. It also exerts effects via agonist binding at ?1A/2A noradrenaline and D1/2/3 dopamine receptors. Overall, mescaline has anxiolytic-like effects in animals and increases prosocial behaviour, locomotion, and response reactivity. In humans, mescaline can induce euphoria, hallucinations, improvements in well-being and mental health conditions, and psychotomimetic effects in a naturalistic or religious setting.

Conclusion
The pharmacological mechanisms of mescaline are similar to those of other classical psychedelics, like psilocybin and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Mescaline appears to be safe to consume, with most intoxications being mild and easily treatable. Improvement in mental well-being and its ability to overcome alcoholism render mescaline potentially beneficial in clinical settings.

Mescaline: The forgotten psychedelic https://link.researcher-app.com/AwyE – via Researcher (@ResearcherApp)

What is ableism?

So what, exactly, counts as ableism?

If you don’t live with a disability yourself, you may not realize the numerous ways society pushes people with disabilities to the fringes.

As a start, it might help to unpack what “disability” means. This term might automatically bring to mind people with noticeable physical conditions.

For example:

  • A person who uses a wheelchair
  • a blind person who uses a sight stick
  • a person who has only one arm

But according to the Americans with Disabilities Act, a disability can include any physical or mental health condition or symptom that significantly affects at least one major activity of daily life.

Disabilities can affect the ability to:

  • communicate
  • stand, walk, or move from place to place
  • leave home
  • see, hear, breathe, or eat and drink
  • learn and remember information
  • handle work responsibilities
  • interact with others, including co-workers, friends, loved ones, and anyone else
  • shower, use the bathroom, or handle other basic needs

Mocking or dismissing someone with a disability might be a pretty obvious form of ableism, but ableism doesn’t always happen intentionally. Maybe you just never realized chronic illness or mental health conditions counted as disabilities.

But ableism often begins with the failure to acknowledge the different types of disabilities people can experience. You may not have any negative intentions or ill will, but unintentional ableism can still have a major impact.

Republished from https://www.healthline.com/health/what-is-ableism#identifying-it

The Lancet Commission on lessons for the future from the COVID-19 pandemic – The Lancet

The Lancet Commission on lessons for the future from the COVID-19 pandemic – The Lancet

Section 1 of this Commission report provides a conceptual framework for understanding pandemics. Section 2 provides an annotated chronology of the COVID-19 pandemic and thematic findings regarding several issues. Section 3 presents our policy recommendations, particularly around multilateral cooperation centred at WHO to address global health crises, and around investments in preparedness for future health crises through strong national health systems and international financing and technology cooperation with the world’s lower-income regions.

https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736%2822%2901585-9/fulltext

Psychobiotics: The Next-Generation Probiotics for the Brain – PubMed

Psychobiotics: The Next-Generation Probiotics for the Brain – PubMed

Psychobiotics are a special class of probiotics, which deliver mental health benefits to individuals. They differ from conventional probiotics in their ability to produce or stimulate the production of neurotransmitters, short-chain fatty acids, enteroendocrine hormones and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Owing to this potential, psychobiotics have a broad spectrum of applications ranging from mood and stress alleviation to being an adjuvant in therapeutic treatment for various neurodevelopment and neurodegenerative disorders. The common psychobiotic bacteria belong to the family Lactobacilli, Streptococci, Bifidobacteria, Escherichia and Enterococci. The two-way crosstalk between the brain and the gastrointestinal system is influenced by these bacteria. The neurons present in the enteric nervous system interact directly with the neurochemicals produced by microbiota of the gut, thereby influencing the signaling to central nervous system. The present review highlights the scope and advancements made in the field, enlisting numerous commercial psychobiotic products that have flooded the market. In the latter part we discuss the potential concerns with respect to psychobiotics, such as the effects due to withdrawal, compatibility with immunocompromised patients, and the relatively unregulated probiotic market.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33394083/

Ivermectin for Prevention and Treatment of COVID-19 Infection: A Systematic Review, Meta-analysis, and Trial Sequential Analysis to Inform Clinical Guidelines

Ivermectin for Prevention and Treatment of COVID-19 Infection: A Systematic Review, Meta-analysis, and Trial Sequential Analysis to Inform Clinical Guidelines

Moderate-certainty evidence finds that large reductions in COVID-19 deaths are possible using ivermectin. Using ivermectin early in the clinical course may reduce numbers progressing to severe disease. The apparent safety and low cost suggest that ivermectin is likely to have a significant impact on the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic globally.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8248252/

Epigenetic MRI: Noninvasive imaging of DNA methylation in the brain | PNAS

Epigenetic MRI: Noninvasive imaging of DNA methylation in the brain | PNAS

We developed a technology called epigenetic MRI (eMRI) that enables noninvasive imaging of DNA methylation in the brain, a major epigenetic mechanism. eMRI reveals strong regional differences in global DNA methylation in pig brains, a model with stronger resemblance to human brains than are rodents. Given the noninvasive nature of eMRI, our results pave the way for a DNA-methylation imaging paradigm for living human brains. We expect eMRI to enable many studies to unravel the molecular control of brain function and disease.

https://www.pnas.org/doi/10.1073/pnas.2119891119

Nutrients | Free Full-Text | The Mutual Relationship among Cardiovascular Diseases and COVID-19: Focus on Micronutrients Imbalance

Nutrients | Free Full-Text | The Mutual Relationship among Cardiovascular Diseases and COVID-19: Focus on Micronutrients Imbalance

Micronutrients are ions and vitamins humbly required by the human body. They play a main role in several physiological mechanisms and their imbalance is strongly associated with potentially-fatal complications. Micronutrient imbalance is associated with many cardiovascular diseases, such as arrythmias, heart failure, and ischemic heart disease. It has been also observed in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), particularly in most severe patients. The relationship between cardiovascular diseases and COVID-19 is mutual: the latter triggers cardiovascular disease onset and worsening while patients with previous cardiovascular disease may develop a more severe form of COVID-19. In addition to the well-known pathophysiological mechanisms binding COVID-19 and cardiovascular diseases together, increasing importance is being given to the impact of micronutrient alterations, often present during COVID-19 and able to affect the balance responsible for a good functioning of the cardiovascular system. In particular, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hyponatremia, and hypocalcemia are strongly associated with worse outcome, while vitamin A and D deficiency are associated with thromboembolic events in COVID-19. Thus, considering how frequent the cardiovascular involvement is in patients with COVID-19, and how it majorly affects their prognosis, this manuscript provides a comprehensive review on the role of micronutrient imbalance in the interconnection between COVID-19 and cardiovascular diseases.

https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/14/16/3439

Outside the Safe Operating Space of a New Planetary Boundary for Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) | Environmental Science & Technology

Outside the Safe Operating Space of a New Planetary Boundary for Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) | Environmental Science & Technology


Outside the Safe Operating Space of a New Planetary Boundary for Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS)
Ian T. Cousins*, Jana H. Johansson, Matthew E. Salter, Bo Sha, and Martin Scheringer
Cite this: Environ. Sci. Technol. 2022, 56, 16, 11172–11179
Publication Date:August 2, 2022
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.2c02765
Copyright © 2022 The Authors. Published by American Chemical Society
RIGHTS & PERMISSIONS

SUBJECTS:Deposition,Drinking water,
Abstract

It is hypothesized that environmental contamination by per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) defines a separate planetary boundary and that this boundary has been exceeded. This hypothesis is tested by comparing the levels of four selected perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) (i.e., perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA)) in various global environmental media (i.e., rainwater, soils, and surface waters) with recently proposed guideline levels. On the basis of the four PFAAs considered, it is concluded that (1) levels of PFOA and PFOS in rainwater often greatly exceed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Lifetime Drinking Water Health Advisory levels and the sum of the aforementioned four PFAAs (?4 PFAS) in rainwater is often above Danish drinking water limit values also based on ?4 PFAS; (2) levels of PFOS in rainwater are often above Environmental Quality Standard for Inland European Union Surface Water; and (3) atmospheric deposition also leads to global soils being ubiquitously contaminated and to be often above proposed Dutch guideline values. It is, therefore, concluded that the global spread of these four PFAAs in the atmosphere has led to the planetary boundary for chemical pollution being exceeded. Levels of PFAAs in atmospheric deposition are especially poorly reversible because of the high persistence of PFAAs and their ability to continuously cycle in the hydrosphere, including on sea spray aerosols emitted from the oceans. Because of the poor reversibility of environmental exposure to PFAS and their associated effects, it is vitally important that PFAS uses and emissions are rapidly restricted.

KEYWORDS:PFAS planetary boundary
Synopsis
A planetary boundary has been exceeded due to PFAS levels in environmental media being ubiquitously above guideline levels.

Introduction
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A recent review article in Science (1) highlighted the global threat posed by plastic pollution. These concerns were based on the high environmental persistence of plastics, the related “poor reversibility” and a range of potential effects. Other researchers, including ourselves, (2,3) have pointed out similar concerns related to highly persistent nonpolymeric substances, but these concerns are not equally obvious to the public compared to the concerns with plastics. The relatively high public concern regarding plastics is possibly driven by the visibility of plastic waste compared to nonpolymeric substances. (4) Clearly, both plastic pollution and pollution by highly persistent nonpolymeric substances lead to similar global problems. Persistence is generally seen as a less immediate hazardous property than toxicity, but it actually is the key factor that lets pollution problems spiral out of control. (2) This is because persistence enables chemicals to spread out over large distances, causes long-term, even life-long exposure, and leads to higher and higher levels in the environment as long as emissions continue. These increasing levels will with high probability sooner or later lead to adverse effects. Importantly, microplastic is under consideration for restriction in the EU because of the extreme persistence of plastics and the irreversibility of the exposure caused by plastic particles in the environment. (5)
Recently a group of scientists flagged the concerns regarding the inability of scientific analyses to keep pace with the amount of chemicals produced and released into the environment, (6) which limits the ability to discover new environmental threats in time. Others have similarly pointed out the need for precautionary chemicals managements; a notable example is the report, “Late Lessons from Early Warnings”, (7) where many historical examples of global contamination problems are provided, often associated with persistent chemicals.
A well-known class of pollutants, the per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), have also recently featured in a review in Science. (8) The vast majority of PFAS are highly persistent (based on the EU REACH definition whereby a substance is persistent if it is persistent itself or has persistent degradation products (9)), and this has been seen as basis for managing them as a chemical class. (3) While the review article in Science pointed out the ubiquity and high persistence of PFAS, it did not point out the current widespread and poorly reversible risks associated even with low-level PFAS exposures. It is hypothesized here that due to the global spread of PFAS, the irreversibility of exposure to PFAS, and the associated biological effects, a new planetary boundary for PFAS has been exceeded.
Unfortunately, although there are many thousands of substances defined as PFAS in use (PFAS include any substance with at least one ?CF2– or ?CF3 moiety in its structure (10)), the current understanding of biological impacts is based primarily on studies of four perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), namely, perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA). Whereas all PFAS can be grouped into a class on the basis of their high persistence, (3) it is not possible to group many of them according to biological risk because of a paucity of data on exposure and effects for most PFAS. (11) Therefore, because of data gaps, the analysis presented here is based only on the four PFAAs mentioned above. In the following, we provide four pieces of evidence to support the claim that, even considering only these four PFAAs, the new planetary boundary for PFAS has been exceeded.
In the planetary boundary concept, an attempt is made to estimate the boundaries for “a safe operating space for humanity with respect to the functioning of the Earth System”. (12,13) Chemical pollution was one of the original nine anthropogenic impacts for which planetary boundaries were postulated because it can influence Earth System functioning: “(i) through a global, ubiquitous impact on the physiological development and demography of humans and other organisms with ultimate impacts on ecosystem functioning and structure and (ii) by acting as a slow variable that affects other planetary boundaries.” (12,13) The “chemical pollution” boundary was renamed as the “novel entities” (NEs) boundary by Steffen et al., (14) where NEs are defined as “new substances, new forms of existing substances and modified life forms”, including “chemicals and other new types of engineered materials or organisms not previously known to the Earth system as well as naturally occurring elements (for example, heavy metals) mobilized by anthropogenic activities”. Several groups of scientists (6,15,16) have pointed out the challenges in quantifying the planetary boundary for NEs, and recently it was proposed to instead use various control variables to determine if the boundary is exceeded. (6) It is, in our opinion, an insurmountable task to quantify the boundary for all NEs because (1) there are critical data gaps for a large proportion of existing NEs, (2) NEs of various types and mixtures of NEs are continuously being generated and released to the environment, and (3) there are multiple possible effects (not only toxic effects) that individual NEs or groups/mixtures of NEs can cause. Several of the existing planetary boundaries are related to the release of NEs. For example, the boundaries for “stratospheric ozone depletion” and “climate change” address the release of ozone depleting substances and gases with global warming potential, respectively. Therefore, rather than being a single planetary boundary, the boundary for NEs can be thought of as a placeholder for multiple planetary boundaries for NEs that may emerge. It is argued here that PFAS define a new planetary boundary for NEs.
We argue that if drinking water health advisories and other guidelines designed to protect human health are exceeded due to the global environmental spread of PFAS, then there is a real danger of global health effects (e.g., affecting human physiology) occurring and that it can be argued that the planetary boundary for PFAS is exceeded. We do not deem it necessary to demonstrate the prevalence of global human health effects due to PFAS exposure to prove our hypothesis, and we hope that such widespread effects in the human population are never observed.
The US EPA Lifetime Drinking Water Health Advisories for PFOS and PFOA Are Often Lower than Their Respective Levels in Rainwater and the Danish Drinking Water Limit Value for ?4 PFAS Is Also Often Lower than the Level of ?4 PFAS in Rainwater
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In June 2022, the US Environmental Protection agency (EPA) announced the release of health advisories for four PFAS, including interim updated nonregulatory lifetime drinking water health advisories for PFOA and PFOS of 4 pg/L and 20 pg/L, respectively. (17) The US EPA health advisories identify the concentration of chemicals in drinking water at or below which adverse health effects are not anticipated to occur and, in divergence with previous advisories, are based on human epidemiology studies in populations exposed to these chemicals. The most sensitive noncancer effect and the basis for the risk assessment behind the interim updated health advisories for PFOA and PFOS is suppression of vaccine response (decreased serum antibody concentrations) in children. The US EPA’s previous nonregulatory lifetime drinking water health advisories were 70 ng/L for the sum of concentrations of PFOS and PFOA. In 2020, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) published their Opinion on the risks to human health arising from the presence of PFAS in food (18) and proposed a group tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 4.4 ng/kg body weight for the sum of PFOA, PFNA, PFHxS, and PFOS. On the basis of the available studies in animals and humans, effects on the immune system were considered the most critical for the basis of the risk assessment. (18) In June 2021, on the basis of the TWI in the EFSA Opinion, the Danish Environmental Protection Agency tightened their drinking water limit values and announced that drinking water must not contain more than 2 ng/L of ?4 PFAAs. (19)
PFAS drinking water guidelines have progressively decreased over the last 22 years. (20) For example, in the US the PFOA drinking water guideline for West Virginia was 150?000 ng/L, (20) which is higher by a factor of 37.5 million than the recently announced US EPA drinking water lifetime advisory for PFOA of 4 pg/L. As a result of this decrease, international drinking water guidelines for PFAS are now close to, or even lower than, levels in precipitation. Humans residing in industrialized areas of the world do not often drink rainwater in modern life, but it should nevertheless be a reasonable expectation that the environment is clean enough that rainwater and mountain stream water fed by precipitation is safe to drink. Furthermore, in some parts of the world, notably in some arid and tropical regions, rainwater remains an important source of drinking water. (21)
In Figure 1, the levels of PFAS in precipitation are reviewed and compared to drinking water advisories for Denmark and the US EPA, which are the most stringent advisories known globally. The criteria for including/excluding studies for the selection shown in Figure 1 are (1) only studies which have precipitation samples are considered, (2) sampling and analysis was carried out after 2010, and (3) raw data or descriptive statistics (range and median or mean concentration) of the data were provided. Only data from 2010 or later were included because (1) these data are more recent and further from the 2000–2002 3M phase-out of long-chain PFAS chemistries and (2) there were large analytical improvements throughout the early 2000s as evidenced by the improvement in the fourth international interlaboratory study of 2011 compared to the three international interlaboratory studies conducted between 2004 and 2009. (22) Four precipitation studies were excluded because although the studies were published after 2010, the analysis was performed prior to 2010 (see Supporting Information).
Figure 1

Figure 1. Levels of (A) PFOA, (B) PFOS, and (C) ?4 PFAAs (PFOA + PFNA + PFHxS + PFOS) in wet deposition collected at various global locations from 2010 to the present. For one study, (24) it was not possible to derive median values and thus mean values are provided (indicated by *). The dashed line in (A) shows the US EPA health advisory for PFOA (0.004 ng/L), the dashed lines in (B) show the EU EQC for PFOS (i.e., 0.65 ng/L) and the US EPA health advisory for PFOS (i.e., 0.020 ng/L), and the dashed line in (C) shows the Danish drinking water guideline for ?4 PFAAs (i.e., 2 ng/L). Bars indicate median values, and the uncertainty bars indicate minimum and maximum values. Wet deposition measurements for ?4 PFAAs are ordered from high to low (from left to right) and sorted into four categories (“Fluoropolymer plant” indicates that samples were taken close to a fluoropolymer manufacturing plant; “Urban” indicates that samples were taken in cities or urbanized regions; “Rural” indicates that samples were taken in rural less-populated locations, and “Remote” indicates that samples were taken in regions with very low or nonexistent human populations). Some studies sampled wet deposition in multiple locations within one of the four categories, and thus data from these individual locations are grouped together in several bars. The raw data and a description of data treatment for figure preparation are provided in the Supporting Information.

In Figure 1A, the levels of PFOA in rainwater greatly exceed the US EPA drinking water health advisory for PFOA, even in remote areas (the lowest value for PFOA is for the Tibetan Plateau with a median of 55 pg/L, (23) which is approximately 14 times higher than the advisory). In Figure 1B, the levels of PFOS in rainwater are shown to often exceed the US EPA drinking water health advisory for PFOS, except for two studies conducted in remote regions (in Tibet and Antarctica). In Figure 1C, the levels of ?4 PFAAs in precipitation are reviewed, (23?34) and it is shown that, in populated regions (defined as “urban” and “rural” in Figure 1), the levels would often exceed the Danish limit values for drinking water. In remote regions, with low human populations, the ?4 PFAAs in rainwater also often exceeds the Danish drinking water limit value (Figure 1C). In Sweden, a national mapping of PFAS in municipal raw and drinking waters was undertaken in 2021. (35) About 49% of drinking waters in Sweden were found to contain ?PFAS > 5 ng/L, and it was shown that the 4 PFAAs that are included in EFSA’s risk assessment contributed a large fraction of the total PFAS measured. For comparison with the US, it was recently estimated (36) that at a concentration of 5 ng/L for combined PFOA + PFOS, 21?123 million people or 7?41% of the US population may have drinking water at or above that level, and at a concentration of 2.5 ng/L, it was estimated to be 76?205 million people or 25?68% of the population. The Swedish drinking water guideline for mitigation action (90 ng/L for ?11 PFAS) (37) was previously based on the 2008 EFSA Scientific Opinion on PFOS and PFOA (38) and was recently reduced to 4 ng/L ?4 PFAAs, (37) in light of the 2020 EFSA Opinion on PFAS. (18)
The US EPA health advisories seem not to be practically reachable without investment of huge cleanup costs in drinking water treatment plants given that most drinking water sources on the planet will have PFAS levels above the advisory levels. The US EPA health advisories are nonregulatory but demonstrating compliance to these guidelines would be an analytical challenge because modern methods are typically not able to achieve detection limits for PFOA below 4 pg/L in drinking water. Modern research laboratories have detection limits as low as 80 pg/L for PFOA and 100 pg/L for PFOS, respectively, in drinking water (39) and commercial laboratories tend to have much higher detection and quantification limits (e.g., Eurofins has quantification limits of about 1 ng/L for PFAS in water (40)). Achieving detection limits of <4 pg/L for PFOA in drinking water would be theoretically possible given that low pg/L levels have been previously measured in ocean water samples, even more than a decade ago. (41) Achieving such a low detection limit in drinking water would probably require extraction of larger than typical sample volumes and/or injection of larger extract volumes on the instrument. For example, the published method (39) that achieved 80 pg/L detection limits for PFOA was based on 10 mL samples and could be scaled to achieve <4 pg/L detection limits with larger sample volumes. It will also be important to have very low blank contamination because ultimately the blank levels and associated quality assurance will determine the detection limits that can be achieved.
The European Union (EU) Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for PFOS for Freshwaters Is Often Lower than Levels in Rainwater
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In 2010, the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) in the Netherlands derived a risk-based maximum permissible concentration (MPC) for PFOS in freshwaters of 0.65 ng/L based on potential for secondary poisoning in humans due to fish consumption. (42) The MPC is a guideline level and it is defined as “the level at which no harmful effects are expected, based on annual average concentrations”. In 2013, PFOS and its derivatives were included in Directive 2013/39/EU and thus considered “Priority Hazardous Substances” under the Water Framework Directive (WFD) (2000/60/EC). Environmental Quality Standards (EQC) were, then, set for PFOS and its derivatives for freshwaters, marine waters, and biota. The EU annual average environmental quality standard (AA-EQS) for PFOS in Inland EU Surface Water was set at 0.65 ng/L, following the same reasoning used previously by RIVM. It is known that concentrations of PFOS in freshwaters regularly exceed the EQS, (43,44) but potentially of more concern is that the levels of PFOS in rainwater are equal to, or even exceed the EQS. As can be seen in Figure 1A), the levels of PFOS in rainwater in populated regions in the northern hemisphere in some cases exceed, or are close to, the EQC of 0.65 ng/L. Therefore, regardless of wastewater inputs to freshwaters, the EQC for PFOS will likely always be approached in populated regions, and often exceeded, as a result of the widespread presence of PFOS in atmospheric deposition.
Recently, authorities in the Stockholm metropolitan region have advised the public not to eat fish from lakes in the region. (45) This was not based on exceedance of the 0.65 ng/L EQS for PFOS and associated secondary poisoning but rather on exceedance of a temporary action level for fish of 9.1 ng/g PFOS set by the Swedish Food Agency. (37) The Swedish action level is considered temporary because it will be revised in the near future (37) according to the 2020 EFSA Scientific Opinion on the risks to human health arising from the presence of PFAS in food. (18) Given that the EU freshwater EQC is based on secondary consumption in humans because of fish consumption, there are grounds for revising the EQS based on the recent EFSA Opinion. (18) Such a revision of the freshwater EQS would likely result in a further reduction in its level and in basing the EQS on the sum of PFOA, PFNA, PFHxS, and PFOS.
The Dutch Guidelines for PFAS in Soils and Dredging Material Were Impossible to Apply Due to the Ubiquity of PFAS in Atmospheric Deposition
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Recent guidelines set in July 2018 by the infrastructure ministry in the Netherlands stated that soil and dredging material should not contain concentrations of >0.1 ?g/kg dry weight (dw) of either PFOS or PFOA. (46) As the levels of PFAS in soils often exceeded these guideline values, 70% of building projects involving soil removal and filling with excavated material were halted in the Netherlands. (47) Following builders’ protests, the Dutch government relaxed the guidelines. (48) Only a few studies have reported levels of PFAS in soils that have no known local PFAS source nearby. For example, Rankin et al. reported median PFOS and PFOA concentrations of 0.47 and 0.12 ?g/kg dw for global soils, (49) whereas Sörengård et al. reported median PFOS and PFOA concentrations of 0.39 and 0.38 ?g/kg dw in Swedish forest soils. (50) These reported soil levels illustrate the impossibility of complying with the Dutch guidelines before they were revised upward. The background soil contamination with PFAS is again a result of the environmental ubiquity of PFAAs in atmospheric deposition. If soils are amended with sewage sludge or biosolids, which is a common practice in agriculture in many countries, then soil levels will be further elevated and PFAS can leach to contaminate surface water and groundwater, including drinking water sources. On the basis of concerns regarding PFAS soil contamination, the US State of Maine passed a bill banning the use of biosolids in land applications unless, in the unlikely case, they could be shown to be PFAS free. (51)
The Cycling of PFAAs in the World’s Hydrosphere Means That Levels of PFAAs in Rainwater Will Be Practically Irreversible
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Until recently, the common belief was that PFAAs would eventually wash off into the oceans where they would stay to be diluted over the time scale of decades. (52) A recent study, (53) however, has provided evidence that certain PFAS, notably the long-chain PFAAs, which include the 4 PFAAs included in EFSA’s TWI, can be significantly enriched on sea spray aerosols (SSA) and transported in the atmosphere back to shore where they will be deposited and contaminate freshwaters, drinking waters and surface soils.
This continual global cycling of PFAAs in the hydrosphere will lead to the continued exceedance of the above-mentioned guidelines. This finding is particularly worrying because (1) guideline values based on biological effects have continually decreased (20) and may not yet have reached the bottom as more scientific evidence emerges, (2) guidelines are currently based on only a few of the substances in the large PFAS class, (10) and (3) there is no evidence for the decline in environmental concentrations and thus environmentally derived exposures of PFAS. (54)
Discussion
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PFAS are a planetary boundary problem based on the criteria outlined by MacLeod et al., (55) namely, (1) the diffuse PFAS pollution is global in its scale, (2) the effects are only now being discovered after the pollutants are already globally spread, and (3) now that the effects have been discovered they are poorly reversible or irreversible. As with most chemicals in use, (6) because of the lack of information, it is impossible to make a full assessment of the planetary boundary threat for the many thousands of PFAS in the class. Nevertheless, based on the four PFAAs considered here, it is concluded that in many areas inhabited by humans the planetary boundary for PFAS has been exceeded based on the levels in rainwater, surface water and soil, with all of these media being widely contaminated above recently proposed guideline levels. Although the global emissions of these 4 PFAAs have been reduced in recent years in most countries, (5256) these substances continue to remain in the environment due to their high persistence and will continually cycle in the hydrosphere.

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.est.2c02765#

Nutrients | Free Full-Text | Nootropics as Cognitive Enhancers: Types, Dosage and Side Effects of Smart Drugs | HTML

Nutrients | Free Full-Text | Nootropics as Cognitive Enhancers: Types, Dosage and Side Effects of Smart Drugs | HTML

Nootropics, also known as “smart drugs” are a diverse group of medicinal substances whose action improves human thinking, learning, and memory, especially in cases where these functions are impaired. This review provides an up-to-date overview of the potential effectiveness and importance of nootropics. Based on their nature and their effects, this heterogeneous group of drugs has been divided into four subgroups: classical nootropic compounds, substances increasing brain metabolism, cholinergic, and plants and their extracts with nootropic effects. Each subgroup of nootropics contains several main representatives, and for each one, its uses, indications, experimental treatments, dosage, and possible side effects and contraindications are discussed. For the nootropic plant extracts, there is also a brief description of each plant representative, its occurrence, history, and chemical composition of the medicinal part. Lastly, specific recommendations regarding the use of nootropics by both ill and healthy individuals are summarized.

https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/14/16/3367/htm

Frontiers | ADHD and Neurodegenerative Disease Risk: A Critical Examination of the Evidence

Frontiers | ADHD and Neurodegenerative Disease Risk: A Critical Examination of the Evidence

These studies present first evidence of a link between ADHD and risk of dementia, specific to LBD. Strengths include well-powered analyses and extensive follow-up periods (>10 years) in most studies. However, six (Curtin et al., 2018; Fluegge and Fluegge, 2018; Tzeng et al., 2019; Fan et al., 2020; Du Rietz et al., 2021; Zhang et al., 2021) rely on ICD diagnostic codes extracted from electronic health records, and there are limitations around the validity and accuracy of these codes, particularly for a disorder that is notoriously difficult to detect in adults (Newcorn et al., 2007; Ginsberg et al., 2014). The remaining two (Walitza et al., 2007; Golimstok et al., 2011) are limited by potentially biased and inaccurate self-reported retrospective childhood ADHD symptoms in small samples of cognitively impaired participants.

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnagi.2021.826213/full

Dietary choline intake is necessary to prevent systems-wide organ pathology and reduce Alzheimers disease hallmarks

Dietary choline intake is necessary to prevent systems-wide organ pathology and reduce Alzheimers disease hallmarks

Choline is an essential chemical pathway, and should be supplemented if you are taking any b vitamins. In fact every good b complex will include it.

Dietary choline intake is necessary to prevent systems-wide organ pathology and reduce Alzheimers disease hallmarks https://link.researcher-app.com/tmZV – via Researcher (@ResearcherApp)

Combination therapy of glycation lowering compounds reduces caloric intake, improves insulin sensitivity and extends lifespan. | bioRxiv

Combination therapy of glycation lowering compounds reduces caloric intake, improves insulin sensitivity and extends lifespan. | bioRxiv

Administration of Gly-Low reduced food consumption and body weight, improving insulin sensitivity and survival in both leptin receptor deficient (Lepr db) and wildtype C57 control mouse models. Unlike calorie restriction, Gly-Low inhibited ghrelin-mediated hunger responses and upregulated Tor pathway signaling in the hypothalamus. Gly-Low also extended lifespan when administered as a late life intervention, suggesting its potential benefits in ameliorating age-associated decline by inducing voluntary calorie restriction and reducing glycation.

https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2022.08.10.503411v1

Red blood cell omega-3 fatty acids and attention scores in healthy adolescents

Red blood cell omega-3 fatty acids and attention scores in healthy adolescents

Overall, our results suggest that DHA (reflecting its dietary intake) is associated with attention performance in typically developing adolescents. The role of dietary ALA in attention is less clear, although higher blood levels of ALA appear to result in lower impulsivity. Future intervention studies are needed to determine the causality of these associations and to better shape dietary recommendations for brain health during the adolescence period.

Red blood cell omega-3 fatty acids and attention scores in healthy adolescents https://link.researcher-app.com/CPZ4 – via Researcher (@ResearcherApp)

Therapeutic potential of Short Chain Fatty acid production by gut microbiota in Neurodegenerative disorders

Therapeutic potential of Short Chain Fatty acid production by gut microbiota in Neurodegenerative disorders

The current systematic review and meta-analysis indicate that dietary fermentation of non-digestible fibers leads to the production of SCFA (Short Chain Fatty Acids) by gut microbiota. Moreover, they directly act on the central nervous system and inhibit the progression of different neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson Disease (PD), Alzheimer Disease (AD) and Multiple Sclerosis (MS). SCFAs act by activating cellular antioxidants and inhibiting inflammation. The properties of SCFAs depend on the G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR), histone deacetylases (HDAC) & peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) and regulatory T cells (Tregs) activation.

Therapeutic potential of Short Chain Fatty acid production by gut microbiota in Neurodegenerative disorders https://link.researcher-app.com/Kr8N – via Researcher (@ResearcherApp)

Will psychedelics be ‘a revolution in psychiatry’?

Will psychedelics be ‘a revolution in psychiatry’?

This review provides a brief discussion on the historical use of psychedelic medicines, the status of the empirical evidence, and numerous significant policy considerations that must be thoughtfully addressed regarding standards of practice, consumer protection, development of data standards, safeguarding access, and community education which supports the responsible, accountable, safe, and ethical uses of these medicines in clinical, faith-based, and other contexts. We provide suggestions for how public health and harm reduction can be supported through a public-private partnership that engages a community of stakeholders from various disciplines in the co-creation and dissemination of best practices and public policies.

Will psychedelics be ‘a revolution in psychiatry’? https://link.researcher-app.com/yajk – via Researcher (@ResearcherApp)

Effects of anthocyanin-rich supplementation on cognition of the cognitively healthy middle-aged and older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Effects of anthocyanin-rich supplementation on cognition of the cognitively healthy middle-aged and older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Effects of anthocyanin-rich supplementation on cognition of the cognitively healthy middle-aged and older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials https://link.researcher-app.com/fztE – via Researcher (@ResearcherApp)

The Potential Influence of the Bacterial Microbiome on the Development and Progression of ADHD

The Potential Influence of the Bacterial Microbiome on the Development and Progression of ADHD

The latest research cumulates staggering information about the correlation between the microbiota-gut-brain axis and neurodevelopmental disorders. This review aims to shed light on the potential influence of the microbiome on the development of the most prevalent neurodevelopmental disease, attention-deficit-hyperactive disorder (ADHD). As the etiology and pathophysiology of ADHD are still unclear, finding viable biomarkers and effective treatment still represent a challenge. Therefore, we focused on factors that have been associated with a higher risk of developing ADHD, while simultaneously influencing the microbial composition. We reviewed the effect of a differing microbial makeup on neurotransmitter concentrations important in the pathophysiology of ADHD. Additionally, we deduced factors that correlate with a high prevalence of ADHD, while simultaneously affecting the gut microbiome, such as emergency c-sections, and premature birth as the former leads to a decrease of the gut microbial diversity and the latter causes neuroprotective Lactobacillus levels to be reduced. Also, we assessed nutritional influences, such as breastfeeding, ingestion of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on the host?s microbiome and development of ADHD. Finally, we discussed the potential significance of Bifidobacterium as a biomarker for ADHD, the importance of preventing premature birth as prophylaxis and nutrition as a prospective therapeutic measurement against ADHD.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6893446/

Nitric oxide signaling in health and disease

Nitric oxide signaling in health and disease

The surprising discovery that the diatomic gas nitric oxide (NO) is generated by mammalian cells and serves to regulate a multitude of physiological processes has continued to fascinate biologists for almost four decades. The biochemistry of NO is complex, and novel insights into the control of NO biosynthesis and mechanisms of signal transduction are continuously emerging. NO is a key regulator of cardiovascular function, metabolism, neurotransmission, immunity, and more, and aberrant NO signaling is a central feature of many major disorders including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. Here, we discuss the basics of NO biology emphasizing recent advances in the field including novel means of increasing NO bioactivity with therapeutic and nutritional implications.

Nitric oxide signaling in health and disease https://link.researcher-app.com/aSxM – via Researcher (@ResearcherApp)

L-Tyrosine+L-Theanine +Coffee bean&berry as Possible ADHD treatment pathway

L-Tyrosine+L-Theanine +Coffee bean&berry as Possible ADHD treatment pathway

Personal anecdote/not sponsored:

In our quest to find the most effective and healthy options in treating conditions, we’ve come across an interesting supplement based mainly on caffine, coffee beans, L-theanine, and L-tyrosine.

Our head researcher has both ADHD and ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorder). Traditional medication used in ADHD treatment has been deficient, until now.

The clarity and calm that is had via this particular supplement has made one of the single biggest changes for him. This may be an option for others wishing to find a more effective treatment, or to make a change away from their current regime.

As always, exercise caution when making changes to your medication, and discuss with your health care professionals.


A closer look at the key nootropics:

Alpha GPC (L-Alpha Glycerylphosphorylcholine) – a cholinergic compound that regulates a neurotransmitter called Acetylcholine, that supports physical and mental performance.
Huperzine A – a compound found in Chinese club moss, increases the neurotransmitter Acetylcholine, supporting memory, focus and brain health.
Ginseng – derived from a fleshy plant root; Ginseng is natural energy support used in Chinese medicine for centuries. This herb can help sharpen your mind and support relaxation simultaneously.
L-Theanine – if you’ve had green tea, you’ve had L-Theanine! This amino acid helps give you a mental boost without the jitters and is now a popular component of many pre-workout formulas.
L-Tyrosine – Your neurotransmitters (such as Dopamine) rely on nonessential amino acids like L-Tyrosine. It assists communication between nerve cells, helping your brain to function with clarity and assisting the healthy stress response.
Bacopa Monnieri (Brahmi) – traditionally used in Ayurvedic medicine, this herb supports focus, learning and memory.

https://athleticsport.com.au/blogs/blog/what-are-the-best-nootropics

Nootopia Nootropic

References

Bellar D, LeBlanc NR, Campbell B. The effect of 6 days of alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine on isometric strength. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015;12:42. Published 2015 Nov 17. doi:10.1186/s12970-015-0103-x

Frank, K., Patel, K., Lopez, G. and Willis, B., 2020. Theanine Research Analysis. [online] Examine.com.

Here, S., Guide, N., Nootropics, L., Nootropics, B. and Take, W., 2020. The Definitive Guide To Nootropics – Nootropics Expert. [online] Nootropicsexpert.com.

Parker, A.G., Byars, A., Purpura, M. et al. The effects of Alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine, caffeine or placebo on markers of mood, cognitive function, power, speed, and agility. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 12, P41 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1186/1550-2783-12-S1-P41

Noor Azuin Suliman, Che Norma Mat Taib, Mohamad Aris Mohd Moklas, Mohd Ilham Adenan, Mohamad Taufik Hidayat Baharuldin, Rusliza Basir, “Establishing Natural Nootropics: Recent Molecular Enhancement Influenced by Natural Nootropic”,Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2016, Article ID 4391375, 12 pages, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/4391375

Cognitive deficit in adults with ADHD lies in the cognitive state disorder rather than the working memory deficit: A functional near-infrared spectroscopy study

Cognitive deficit in adults with ADHD lies in the cognitive state disorder rather than the working memory deficit: A functional near-infrared spectroscopy study

This study tested whether cognitive deficit in patients with adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a working memory deficit or cognitive state disorder during the N-back task. Twenty-two adults with ADHD and twenty-four healthy controls participated in the N-back task. The functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was combined with three perspectives from behavioral and spatial and temporal activation characteristics of blood oxygen levels in the prefrontal cortex to examine the psychological and neuroprocessing characteristics of adult ADHD. Data were acquired using a block design during an N-back task with three memory loads. Visual stimuli were presented on a computer monitor. Behaviorally, response time and accuracy showed no significant differences between the two groups. Spatially, in the left orbitofrontal area and the left frontopolar area (Channels 4 and 11), adult ADHD had significantly higher activation levels of oxyHb in the 2-back task and lower activation levels of deoxyHb in the 3-back task than healthy controls (corrected p?<?0.05). Therefore, Channel 4 in the 2-back condition and Channel 11 in the 3-back condition were used as the regions of interest (ROI). Temporally, adults with ADHD peaked earlier in the ROIs than healthy controls. Furthermore, working memory deficit was not found directly from the behavioral performance in adult ADHD. However, adult ADHD can be affected by memory load, task duration, and novelty stimulus. Our findings suggest that patients with adult ADHD have cognitive state disorder instead of working memory deficit.

Cognitive deficit in adults with ADHD lies in the cognitive state disorder rather than the working memory deficit: A functional near-infrared spectroscopy study https://link.researcher-app.com/wbqx – via Researcher (@ResearcherApp)

Supplementation with NAD+ and Its Precursors to Prevent Cognitive Decline across Disease Contexts

Supplementation with NAD+ and Its Precursors to Prevent Cognitive Decline across Disease Contexts

The preservation of cognitive ability by increasing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) levels through supplementation with NAD+ precursors has been identified as a promising treatment strategy for a number of conditions; principally, age-related cognitive decline (including Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia), but also diabetes, stroke, and traumatic brain injury. Candidate factors have included NAD+ itself, its reduced form NADH, nicotinamide (NAM), nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), nicotinamide riboside (NR), and niacin (or nicotinic acid). This review summarises the research findings for each source of cognitive impairment for which NAD+ precursor supplementation has been investigated as a therapy. The findings are mostly positive but have been made primarily in animal models, with some reports of null or adverse effects. Given the increasing popularity and availability of these factors as nutritional supplements, further properly controlled clinical research is needed to provide definitive answers regarding this strategy’s likely impact on human cognitive health when used to address different sources of impairment.

Supplementation with NAD+ and Its Precursors to Prevent Cognitive Decline across Disease Contexts https://link.researcher-app.com/UR94 – via Researcher (@ResearcherApp)

Consumption of Omega-3 and Maintenance and Incidence of Depressive Episodes: The ELSA-Brasil Study

Consumption of Omega-3 and Maintenance and Incidence of Depressive Episodes: The ELSA-Brasil Study

Depression affects 264 million persons in the world, accounting for some 4.3% of the global burden of disease. Current studies indicate that the decrease in the consumption of omega-3 food sources is associated with the increasing incidence of depression. The study aims to assess the association between the consumption of omega-3 and the maintenance and incidence of depressive episodes in adults (39–64 years) and elderly adults (>65 years). This was a longitudinal study using data from the baseline and first follow-up wave of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Depressive episodes were obtained with the Clinical Interview Schedule Revised (CIS-R), and food consumption was measured with the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Logistic regression was used to analyze associations between the consumption of omega-3 and depressive episodes. Fatty acids from the omega-3 family showed a protective effect against the maintenance of depressive episodes. In relation to incidence, the estimates suggest that the higher the consumption of omega-3 acids, the lower the risk of developing depressive episodes, and significant associations were found between the consumption of omega-3 and alpha-linolenic acid. Dietary consumption of omega-3, DHA, EPA, DPA, and alpha linolenic fatty acids may have a protective effect against the maintenance and incidence of depressive episodes.

Consumption of Omega-3 and Maintenance and Incidence of Depressive Episodes: The ELSA-Brasil Study https://link.researcher-app.com/EhnP – via Researcher (@ResearcherApp)

Beyond the hypothalamus: roles for insulin as a regulator of neurotransmission, motivation, and feeding

Beyond the hypothalamus: roles for insulin as a regulator of neurotransmission, motivation, and feeding

In individuals of healthy weight, intranasal insulin can enhance cognition and decision-making; these effects are dissociable from insulin’s ability to regulate blood glucose. Furthermore, rising rates of obesity and type II diabetes, diseases characterized by elevated insulin and blunted insulin signaling, highlight the need to understand insulin’s effects on neurophysiology [1]. However, despite expression of insulin receptors throughout the brain, little is known about its effects on neural function and resulting behavior (see ref. [2] for review). For example, in humans and rodents, actions of insulin in the brain decrease food intake, but the mechanisms are undefined; the same is true for insulin’s cognitive-enhancing properties, with or without obesity.

Beyond the hypothalamus: roles for insulin as a regulator of neurotransmission, motivation, and feeding https://link.researcher-app.com/w2JM – via Researcher (@ResearcherApp)

Accelerated biological aging in COVID-19 patients | Nature Communications

Accelerated biological aging in COVID-19 patients | Nature Communications


Chronological age is a risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19. Previous findings indicate that epigenetic age could be altered in viral infection. However, the epigenetic aging in COVID-19 has not been well studied. In this study, DNA methylation of the blood samples from 232 healthy individuals and 413 COVID-19 patients is profiled using EPIC methylation array. Epigenetic ages of each individual are determined by applying epigenetic clocks and telomere length estimator to the methylation profile of the individual.

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-022-29801-8

Mullets for Mental Health – Health Hackers

Mullets for Mental Health – Health Hackers

Science. Compassion. Action.

We’re all ears for Black Dog Institute’s Mullets for Mental Health.

1 in 5 of us will experience symptoms of mental illness in any given year. In Australia that’s around 5 million people. And roughly 65% of these people won’t seek help.

For the month of September we will be sporting mullets and raising funds to show support for mental health research.

Please donate and support our mullets and empower everyone in Australia to look after their mental health.

https://www.mulletsformentalhealth.org.au/fundraisers/healthhackers

Therapeutic effects of growth factor cocktail (Cellcurin) containing FGF5s (fibroblast growth factor 5 short) and NMN (nicotinamide mononucleotide) in patients with androgenetic alopecia: A split study

Therapeutic effects of growth factor cocktail (Cellcurin) containing FGF5s (fibroblast growth factor 5 short) and NMN (nicotinamide mononucleotide) in patients with androgenetic alopecia: A split study

GFC with FGF5s and NMN with microneedling is an effective and safe treatment of androgenetic alopecia. Future studies with more thorough investigations in controlled clinical settings are warranted.

https://www.oatext.com/therapeutic-effects-of-growth-factor-cocktail-cellcurintm-containing-fgf5s-fibroblast-growth-factor-5-short-and-nmn-nicotinamide-mononucleotide-in-patients.php

Ron Davis Q&A: Chronic fatigue syndrome research could help Covid long haulers – CNN

Ron Davis Q&A: Chronic fatigue syndrome research could help Covid long haulers – CNN

During the global pandemic, Davis’ search for a cure for ME/CFS could also shed new light in understanding why some Covid-19 long haulers have stayed sick for more than a year.

https://www.cnn.com/2021/03/12/health/ron-davis-covid-long-hauler-scn-wellness/index.html

Early Exposure to Antibiotics Can Cause Permanent Asthma and Allergies | Rutgers University

Early Exposure to Antibiotics Can Cause Permanent Asthma and Allergies | Rutgers University

Early exposure to antibiotics kills healthy bacteria in the digestive tract and can cause asthma and allergies, a new study demonstrates.

https://www.rutgers.edu/news/early-exposure-antibiotics-can-cause-permanent-asthma-and-allergies

Mullets for Mental Health – Health Hackers

Mullets for Mental Health – Health Hackers

Science. Compassion. Action.
Posted by Nathan, Thursday 28th

We’re all ears for Black Dog Institute’s Mullets for Mental Health.

1 in 5 of us will experience symptoms of mental illness in any given year. In Australia that’s around 5 million people. And roughly 65% of these people won’t seek help.

For the month of September we will be sporting mullets and raising funds to show support for mental health research.

Please donate and support our mullets and empower everyone in Australia to look after their mental health.

https://www.mulletsformentalhealth.org.au/fundraisers/healthhackers

Psilocybin microdosers demonstrate greater observed improvements in mood and mental health at one month relative to non-microdosing controls | Scientific Reports

Psilocybin microdosers demonstrate greater observed improvements in mood and mental health at one month relative to non-microdosing controls | Scientific Reports

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-022-14512-3

Just published today in Nature Scientific Reports! “Adults who microdose psychedelics report health related motivations and lower levels of anxiety and depression compared to non-microdosers” — Paul Stamets

Just published today in Nature Scientific Reports! “Adults who microdose psychedelics report health related motivations and lower levels of anxiety and depression compared to non-microdosers” — Paul Stamets

https://paulstamets.com/news/just-published-adults-who-microdose

‘Psychedelics renaissance’: new wave of research puts hallucinogenics forward to treat mental health | Mental health | The Guardian

‘Psychedelics renaissance’: new wave of research puts hallucinogenics forward to treat mental health | Mental health | The Guardian

https://www.theguardian.com/society/2021/sep/26/psychedelics-renaissance-new-wave-of-research-puts-hallucinogenics-forward-to-treat-mental-health?CMP=Share_iOSApp_Other

Association of carbohydrate and saturated fat intake with cardiovascular disease and mortality in Australian women | Heart

Association of carbohydrate and saturated fat intake with cardiovascular disease and mortality in Australian women | Heart

https://heart.bmj.com/content/early/2021/09/11/heartjnl-2021-319654?__cf_chl_jschl_tk__=pmd_rXzzmCcmGM1X2ghcVivfho5Tm2OdoXd.u5iKoe26i7Y-1632371897-0-gqNtZGzNAhCjcnBszQgl

The Smiles Trial: Nutrition for Depression | Ideal Nutrition

The Smiles Trial: Nutrition for Depression | Ideal Nutrition

Each food, beverage, or mixed dish receives a final Food Compass score ranging from 1 (least healthy) to 100 (most healthy). The researchers identified 70 or more as a reasonable score for foods or beverages that should be encouraged. Foods and beverages scoring 31-69 should be consumed in moderation. Anything scoring 30 or lower should be consumed minimally.

Across major food categories, the average Food Compass score was 43.2.

The lowest scoring category was snacks and sweet desserts (average score 16.4).
The highest scoring categories were vegetables (average score 69.1), fruits (average score 73.9, with nearly all raw fruits receiving a score of 100), and legumes, nuts, and seeds (average score 78.6).
Among beverages, the average score ranged from 27.6 for sugar-sweetened sodas and energy drinks to 67 for 100% fruit or vegetable juices.
Starchy vegetables scored an average of 43.2.
The average score for beef was 24.9; for poultry, 42.67; and for seafood, 67.0.

https://www.idealnutrition.com.au/diet-for-depression/

Fasting and Exercise Induce Changes in Serum Vitamin D Metabolites in Healthy Men

Fasting and Exercise Induce Changes in Serum Vitamin D Metabolites in Healthy Men

Increases in 24,25(OH)2D3 and 3-epi-25(OH)D3 levels imply that fasting stimulates vitamin D metabolism. The effects of exercise on serum vitamin D metabolites, which are most pronounced after fasting and in subjects with serum 25(OH)D3 above 25 ng/mL, support the notion that fasting and exercise augment vitamin D metabolism.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8226906/

Frontiers | The Effects of Daytime Psilocybin Administration on Sleep: Implications for Antidepressant Action | Pharmacology

Frontiers | The Effects of Daytime Psilocybin Administration on Sleep: Implications for Antidepressant Action | Pharmacology

Psilocybin (O-phosphoryl-4hydroxy-N, N-dimethyltryptamine) and its active metabolite psilocin (4-hydroxy-N, N-dimethyltryptamine) are the main psychoactive components of psychedelic mushrooms. In the central nervous system, psilocin acts as an agonist of serotonergic 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A/C receptors, leading to altered states of consciousness in humans (Tyls et al., 2014). Psilocybin doses of 0.04–0.43 mg/kg cause alterations in perception, cognition, and emotions, while also eliciting long-term changes in well-being and mood in both healthy and psychiatric subjects (Dos Santos et al., 2016; Kor?ák et al., 2019; Barrett et al., 2020). These long-lasting positive changes lead to an exploration of the therapeutic potential of psychedelics as well as the mechanisms underlying this potential. Because of its general safety, intermediate duration of action, and therapeutic potential in several neuropsychiatric disorders, psilocybin is currently the most intensely studied psychedelic in clinical trials (Sewell et al., 2006; Grob et al., 2011; Stebelska, 2013; Dos Santos, 2014).

Overall, there has been an increasing preclinical (Catlow et al., 2013; Baumeister et al., 2014) and clinical (Carhart-Harris et al., 2016; Bogenschutz and Ross, 2018) evidence for the antidepressant potential of psilocybin. Although exact mechanisms are currently unknown, it is generally believed to be attributed to either a direct action on 5-HT receptors or the psychological effects of acute intoxication (Carhart-Harris and Goodwin, 2017). It has been shown that serotonergic psychedelics including psilocybin via 5-HT2A receptors promote neuroplasticity (Ly et al., 2018), a fundamental mechanism of neuronal adaptation that is disrupted in depression (Carhart-Harris and Goodwin, 2017) and restored by antidepressant treatments including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) or electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) (Hayley and Littlejohn, 2013).

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2020.602590/full

Nutrients | Free Full-Text | Effects of L-Theanine Administration on Stress-Related Symptoms and Cognitive Functions in Healthy Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Nutrients | Free Full-Text | Effects of L-Theanine Administration on Stress-Related Symptoms and Cognitive Functions in Healthy Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Our findings suggest that L-theanine has the potential to promote mental health in the general population with stress-related ailments and cognitive impairments.

https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/11/10/2362

Research News – Success in Reversing Dementia in Mice Sets the Stage for Human Clinical Trials | Tohoku University Global Site

Research News – Success in Reversing Dementia in Mice Sets the Stage for Human Clinical Trials | Tohoku University Global Site

Researchers have identified a new treatment candidate that appears to not only halt neurodegenerative symptoms in mouse models of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease, but also reverse the effects of the disorders.

https://www.tohoku.ac.jp/en/press/eversing_dementia_stage_set_for_human_clinical_trials.html

There Is No Evidence That Associations Between Adolescents’ Digital Technology Engagement and Mental Health Problems Have Increased – Matti Vuorre, Amy Orben, Andrew K. Przybylski, 2021

There Is No Evidence That Associations Between Adolescents’ Digital Technology Engagement and Mental Health Problems Have Increased – Matti Vuorre, Amy Orben, Andrew K. Przybylski, 2021

And this was a warning to regulators and lawmakers focusing on commonly held beliefs about the harmful effects of technology on young people’s mental health.

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2167702621994549

COVID-19 pandemic has been linked with six unhealthy eating behaviors: Study shows a slight increase in eating disorders, one of the deadliest psychiatric health concerns — ScienceDaily

COVID-19 pandemic has been linked with six unhealthy eating behaviors: Study shows a slight increase in eating disorders, one of the deadliest psychiatric health concerns — ScienceDaily

Eat healthy:

A new probe into the lingering impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic revealed correlations to six unhealthy eating behaviors, according to a study by the University of Minnesota Medical School and School of Public Health. Researchers say the most concerning finding indicates a slight increase or the re-emergence of eating disorders, which kill roughly 10,200 people every year — about one person every 52 minutes.

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/04/210412114740.htm

Exercise and nutrition regimen benefits physical, cognitive health: 12-week double-blind control trial in 148 Air Force airmen — ScienceDaily

Exercise and nutrition regimen benefits physical, cognitive health: 12-week double-blind control trial in 148 Air Force airmen — ScienceDaily

“Researchers studied the effects of a 12-week exercise regimen on 148 active-duty Air Force airmen, half of whom also received a twice-daily nutrient beverage that included protein; the omega-3 fatty acid, DHA; lutein; phospholipids; vitamin D; B vitamins and other micronutrients; along with a muscle-promoting compound known as HMB. Both groups improved in physical and cognitive function, with added gains among those who regularly consumed the nutritional beverage, the team reports.”

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/10/201019103508.htm

Health and disease markers correlate with gut microbiome composition across thousands of people | Nature Communications

Health and disease markers correlate with gut microbiome composition across thousands of people | Nature Communications

“We identify major axes of taxonomic variance in the gut and a putative diversity maximum along the Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes axis. Our analyses reveal both known and unknown associations between microbiome composition and host clinical markers and lifestyle factors, including host-microbe associations that are composition-specific. These results suggest potential opportunities for targeted interventions that alter the composition of the microbiome to improve host health.”

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-18871-1

TREATMENT OF AGE-RELATED AND MITOCHONDRIAL DISEASES BY INHIBITION OF HIF-1 ALPHA FUNCTION – President and Fellows of Harvard College

TREATMENT OF AGE-RELATED AND MITOCHONDRIAL DISEASES BY INHIBITION OF HIF-1 ALPHA FUNCTION – President and Fellows of Harvard College

Following we have a new patent application from Dr. David Sinclair et al

It describes the use of NMN on humans and dosage rates.

https://www.freepatentsonline.com/y2020/0291100.html

Effects of oily fish intake on cognitive and socioemotional function in healthy 8–9-year-old children: the FiSK Junior randomized trial | The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Oxford Academic

Effects of oily fish intake on cognitive and socioemotional function in healthy 8–9-year-old children: the FiSK Junior randomized trial | The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Oxford Academic

Oily fish dose-dependently improved cognitive function, especially attention and cognitive flexibility, and reduced socioemotional problems. The results support the importance of n–3 LCPUFAs for optimal brain function and fish intake recommendations in children.

https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/112/1/74/5855515?searchresult=1

Effects of oily fish intake on cognitive and socioemotional function in healthy 8–9-year-old children: the FiSK Junior randomized trial | The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Oxford Academic

Effects of oily fish intake on cognitive and socioemotional function in healthy 8–9-year-old children: the FiSK Junior randomized trial | The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Oxford Academic

Oily fish dose-dependently improved cognitive function, especially attention and cognitive flexibility, and reduced socioemotional problems. The results support the importance of n–3 LCPUFAs for optimal brain function and fish intake recommendations in children.

https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/112/1/74/5855515?searchresult=1

Saturated Fats and Health: A Reassessment and Proposal for Food-Based Recommendations | JACC: Journal of the American College of Cardiology

Dave Asprey seems to do a good job at explaining what this study means:

“Something truly epic happened today that is going to change what you eat for years to come. Truly epic. The Journal of the American College of cardiology published a groundbreaking paper today admitting something that you already knew if you had been on the Bulletproof Diet for the last 10 years. (Yes, I am feeling slightly vindicated after receiving so much resistance after writing The Bulletproof Diet, which eventually helped people lose about 1,000,000 pounds!)This new paper, which uses data from studying 135,000 people overtime, finds:-Saturated fat from meat and dairy do not cause an increase in cardiovascular disease, and reduce stroke risk.-Polyunsaturated fats increase risk of cardiovascular disease.-Different fats do different things-Cutting saturated fat does not reduce death rate-the 25% of people eating the highest saturated fat intake (about ∼14% of calories) had lower risk of stroke-Only 5% of fat should be polyunsaturated for lowest death. This is effectively a deathblow to vegan and plant-based practices, which make people sick over time because they contain almost all polyunsaturated fats. It’s one reason I got sicker when I was a vegan. (It takes 2 years to replace half your cell membrane fats when you change your diet.)”

Niacin Increases NAD+ Significantly in Human Trial | Lifespan.io

Niacin Increases NAD+ Significantly in Human Trial | Lifespan.io

The results of a new human trial using niacin shed new light on its role in NAD+ biology [1].

The trial participants were given a steadily increasing dose of niacin, starting at 250 mg/day to 750-1000 mg/day over a 4-month period, then a 10-month follow-up treatment period. The participants were organized into a study group of individuals with mitochondrial myopathy and a control group of healthy age-matched people consisting of two healthy people for each patient with mitochondrial myopathy. All the study participants were placed on the same niacin supplementation regimen.

The researchers report that niacin treatment increased muscle NAD+ levels by 1.3-fold at 4 months and 2.3-fold after 10 months in the study group.

https://www.lifespan.io/news/niacin-increases-nad-significantly-in-human-trial/

Niacin Increases NAD+ Significantly in Human Trial | Lifespan.io

Niacin Increases NAD+ Significantly in Human Trial | Lifespan.io

The results of a new human trial using niacin shed new light on its role in NAD+ biology [1].

The trial participants were given a steadily increasing dose of niacin, starting at 250 mg/day to 750-1000 mg/day over a 4-month period, then a 10-month follow-up treatment period. The participants were organized into a study group of individuals with mitochondrial myopathy and a control group of healthy age-matched people consisting of two healthy people for each patient with mitochondrial myopathy. All the study participants were placed on the same niacin supplementation regimen.

The researchers report that niacin treatment increased muscle NAD+ levels by 1.3-fold at 4 months and 2.3-fold after 10 months in the study group.

https://www.lifespan.io/news/niacin-increases-nad-significantly-in-human-trial/

Niacin Increases NAD+ Significantly in Human Trial | Lifespan.io

Niacin Increases NAD+ Significantly in Human Trial | Lifespan.io

The results of a new human trial using niacin shed new light on its role in NAD+ biology [1].

The trial participants were given a steadily increasing dose of niacin, starting at 250 mg/day to 750-1000 mg/day over a 4-month period, then a 10-month follow-up treatment period. The participants were organized into a study group of individuals with mitochondrial myopathy and a control group of healthy age-matched people consisting of two healthy people for each patient with mitochondrial myopathy. All the study participants were placed on the same niacin supplementation regimen.

The researchers report that niacin treatment increased muscle NAD+ levels by 1.3-fold at 4 months and 2.3-fold after 10 months in the study group.

https://www.lifespan.io/news/niacin-increases-nad-significantly-in-human-trial/

Australian-made wearable biosensors to gather precision data on chronic disease – Hardware – iTnews

Australian-made wearable biosensors to gather precision data on chronic disease – Hardware – iTnews

Melbourne-based company Nutromics is developing the alternative to painful finger pricks and blood tests to measure key dietary biomarkers in real time.

Australian-made wearable biosensors to gather precision data on chronic disease – Hardware – iTnews

Consumer trends during Covid-19

Some interesting and somewhat encouraging news from the Woolworths CEO today via his email updates during Covid-19 show some interesting trends in consumer spending on food and vitamins during this time.

To quote from his email:

We are becoming healthier and more adventurous in our cooking
While the slow cooking movement continues, we’re also becoming increasingly adventurous. Ingredients such as cardamom, saffron and dried sesame seeds have doubled in sales. Roasted peppers are up 65%, Asian and hot chilli sauces are both up 40% and capers are up 35%.

We’re also well into soup season. What’s interesting this year is the explosive growth of dried soup mix packets (up 200%) as people make more warming soup at home.

It’s also interesting to see customers think about their health, with a big rise in vitamin sales, plus ground ginger and turmeric sales up 120% and sauerkraut up 76%. On a related topic, sales of cough and cold products are much lower this year compared to last year.”

This is encouraging and hopefully a sign that the general population is starting to become more interested in preparing fresh meals rather than fast food, and hopefully the rise in vitamins and other beneficial products is a sign that people are starting to see value in improving their health and eating better.

It’s pretty clear that the more fit and healthy you are and the better you eat, the less likely you are to contract Covid-19 and, less likely to have severe complication if you do. We have been keeping an eye on developments and have been hoping that the silver lining from all of this may be a new focus on health and well-being.

So please ensure you take some time out of your busy life to focus on whats really important, your life! We at Health Hacker wish all of you good health and encourage you to keep exploring and trying to improve your diet and lifestyle as much as possoble. Remember, something is better than nothing so start on somethign today!

Part 1: My COVID-19 update – April 1st – Dr David A Sinclair

“It’s April 1st, 2020. If only the headlines were a joke. Our nation’s leaders will soon be faced with a difficult choice. Hunker down for another four months and wreck the economy or let people out in two months and kill an additional hundred thousand people.

Professor Samir Bhatt, Senior Lecturer at the Imperial College of London, and his colleagues calculate that, globally, up to 43 million people have been infected with SARS-CoV-2. They predict that if we’d gone about our normal lives, COVID-19 would have caused 7 billion infections and 40 million deaths this year. Shielding only the elderly may have halved the number of deaths, a strategy the UK initially entertained, but health systems would have been overwhelmed, so that tactic was largely abandoned.

Based on the advice of professional epidemiologists, most nations have adopted a stretch-it-out and hope it doesn’t return strategy. It seems to be working so far. Rates of new cases are declining in Europe and the US. If the current suppression strategies are sustained, then 38.7 million lives globally will be saved this year, the epidemiologists at the Imperial College calculate. 

But epidemiologists aren’t economists. We can not stay home for the rest of the year – the economic impact would be too high. We are three weeks into the shutdown and already factories are ceasing production, brick-and-mortar retail stores and restaurants are closed, unemployment spikes are unprecedented, commodity prices have plunged, and a wave of loan defaults is expected.

A colleague on a global pandemic response panel tells me the panel’s best estimate is that the US economy will rebound rapidly, but only if the nation returns to work in 60 days. After that, it’s anyone’s guess. No one, not even the experts, are willing to estimate the full economic impact of COVID-19. It will depend on how long it takes to get back to work and how many times we will be sent back home.”

https://mailchi.mp/lifespanbook.com/my-covid-19-update-2572786

Estimating clinical severity of COVID-19 from the transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China | Nature Medicine

Estimating clinical severity of COVID-19 from the transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China | Nature Medicine

As of 29 February 2020 there were 79,394 confirmed cases and 2,838 deaths from COVID-19 in mainland China. Of these, 48,557 cases and 2,169 deaths occurred in the epicenter, Wuhan. A key public health priority during the emergence of a novel pathogen is estimating clinical severity, which requires properly adjusting for the case ascertainment rate and the delay between symptoms onset and death. Using public and published information, we estimate that the overall symptomatic case fatality risk (the probability of dying after developing symptoms) of COVID-19 in Wuhan was 1.4% (0.9–2.1%), which is substantially lower than both the corresponding crude or naïve confirmed case fatality risk (2,169/48,557 = 4.5%) and the approximator1 of deaths/deaths + recoveries (2,169/2,169 + 17,572 = 11%) as of 29 February 2020. Compared to those aged 30–59 years, those aged below 30 and above 59 years were 0.6 (0.3–1.1) and 5.1 (4.2–6.1) times more likely to die after developing symptoms. The risk of symptomatic infection increased with age (for example, at ~4% per year among adults aged 30–60 years).

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-020-0822-7?utm_source=researcher_app&utm_medium=referral&utm_campaign=RESR_MRKT_Researcher_inbound

Dietary Intakes of Minerals, Essential and Toxic Trace Elements for Adults from Eragrostis tef L.: A Nutritional Assessment

Dietary Intakes of Minerals, Essential and Toxic Trace Elements for Adults from Eragrostis tef L.: A Nutritional Assessment

“This study analysed the contents of thirty-six mineral and trace elements in teff (Eragrostis tef L.) grains. What is more, dietary intakes were calculated. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to assess mineral and trace element contents. Consequently, the appropriate Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) or adequate intake (AI), and provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) or provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI) values for adults were determined according to the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) and Institute of Medicine (IOM) regulations. Teff is a significant contributor to RDAs and AIs for females in the following order: Mn > Cu > Zn ≥ Mg > Fe ≥ P and Ca. For males, teff contributes in the order, Mn > Cu > Fe > Zn ≥ P ≥ Mg > and Ca. The concentration of arsenic (65.9 µg/kg) in brown teff originating in Bolivia exceeded the average acceptable value set by Reg. No. 1881 of 6–50 µg/kg in cereals consumed in the EU. The PTWIs or PTMIs for Al, Cd, Sn and Hg were all under 7%, which is below the limits of toxic element intake related to the body weight of 65 kg for adult females and 80 kg for males, set by the FAO/WHO. Teff grains can be recommended as a valuable and safe source of minerals and trace elements.”

Nutrients | Free Full-Text | Dietary Intakes of Minerals, Essential and Toxic Trace Elements for Adults from Eragrostis tef L.: A Nutritional Assessment | HTML
Metabolic Effects of Intermittent Fasting | Annual Review of Nutrition

Metabolic Effects of Intermittent Fasting | Annual Review of Nutrition

“Intermittent fasting regimens are hypothesized to influence metabolic regulation via effects on (a) circadian biology, (b) the gut microbiome, and (c) modifiable lifestyle behaviors, such as sleep. If proven to be efficacious, these eating regimens offer promising nonpharmacological approaches to improving health at the population level, with multiple public health benefits.”

https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev-nutr-071816-064634?utm_source=researcher_app&utm_medium=referral&utm_campaign=RESR_MRKT_Researcher_inbound

The Neuroprotective Properties of Hericium erinaceus in Glutamate-Damaged Differentiated PC12 Cells and an Alzheimer’s Disease Mouse Model

The Neuroprotective Properties of Hericium erinaceus in Glutamate-Damaged Differentiated PC12 Cells and an Alzheimer’s Disease Mouse Model

Hericium erinaceus, an edible and medicinal mushroom, displays various pharmacological activities in the prevention of dementia in conditions such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease. The present study explored the neuroprotective effects of H. erinaceus mycelium polysaccharide-enriched aqueous extract (HE) on an l-glutamic acid (l-Glu)-induced differentiated PC12 (DPC12) cellular apoptosis model and an AlCl3 combined with d-galactose-induced Alzheimer’s disease mouse model.

https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/17/11/1810

Finding good food

Finding good food

I visited my local https://thesourcebulkfoods.com.au/ store at Rhodes the other day and found some great products. Among them was Kakadu plum powder and grass fed bone broth powder. The owner of the store and staff were very nice and very helpful. If you are looking for ingredients for your healthy meals then this is one good place to start. They have stores all around Australia and in some other regions as well and each seems to be owned by individuals or families under a franchise model. Each franchise also seems to have a fair bit of flexibility around sourcing ingredients so don’t be afraid to ask for something if it’s not already in store.

I will keep you up to date on new findings, please let us know if you find any places to get great quality ingredients.

Natural Products and Their Bioactive Compounds: Neuroprotective Potentials against Neurodegenerative Diseases

Natural Products and Their Bioactive Compounds: Neuroprotective Potentials against Neurodegenerative Diseases

In recent years, natural products, which originate from plants, animals, and fungi, together with their bioactive compounds have been intensively explored and studied for their therapeutic potentials for various diseases such as cardiovascular, diabetes, hypertension, reproductive, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. Neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are characterized by the progressive dysfunction and loss of neuronal structure and function that resulted in the neuronal cell death. Since the multifactorial pathological mechanisms are associated with neurodegeneration, targeting multiple mechanisms of actions and neuroprotection approach, which involves preventing cell death and restoring the function to damaged neurons, could be promising strategies for the prevention and therapeutic of neurodegenerative diseases. Natural products have emerged as potential neuroprotective agents for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. This review focused on the therapeutic potential of natural products and their bioactive compounds to exert a neuroprotective effect on the pathologies of neurodegenerative diseases.

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2020/6565396/?utm_source=researcher_app&utm_medium=referral&utm_campaign=RESR_MRKT_Researcher_inbound

The effects of resveratrol on lipid profiles and liver enzymes

The effects of resveratrol on lipid profiles and liver enzymes

This meta-analysis demonstrated that resveratrol supplementation among patients with MetS and related disorders significantly reduced total cholesterol and increased GGT concentrations, but did not affect triglycerides, LDL-, HDL-cholesterol, ALT, and AST concentrations. This data suggests that resveratrol may have a potential cardio-protective effect in patients with MetS and related disorders

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12944-020-1198-x?utm_source=researcher_app&utm_medium=referral&utm_campaign=RESR_MRKT_Researcher_inbound

Mitophagy and DNA damage signaling in human aging

Mitophagy and DNA damage signaling in human aging

Highlights

•DNA damage regulates mitophagy induction and mitochondrial homeostasis.

•Nuclear-mitochondrial signaling modulates aging and age-associated disorders.

•Combinatorial approaches targeting DNA repair and mitophagy could promote healthy aging.

Mitophagy and DNA damage signaling in human aging – ScienceDirect
Recent studies on anti-aging compounds with Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism – ScienceDirect

Recent studies on anti-aging compounds with Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism – ScienceDirect

Extension of lifespan and amelioration of aging-associated phenotypes have been targets of many studies. Some of the established methods of increasing lifespan including dietary restriction and genetic manipulation are difficult to apply to humans, and their side effects are hard to predict. For that reason, it is important to discover compounds that can mimic the anti-aging actions or induce lifespan extension through different metabolisms within the cell. Here we summarize the recent studies to test various types of compounds and materials using budding yeast that show potential anti-aging effects.

Recent studies on anti-aging compounds with Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism – ScienceDirect
Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China – ScienceDirect

Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China – ScienceDirect

“By Jan 2, 2020, 41 admitted hospital patients had been identified as having laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection. Most of the infected patients were men (30 [73%] of 41); less than half had underlying diseases (13 [32%]), including diabetes (eight [20%]), hypertension (six [15%]), and cardiovascular disease (six [15%]). Median age was 49·0 years (IQR 41·0–58·0). 27 (66%) of 41 patients had been exposed to Huanan seafood market. One family cluster was found. Common symptoms at onset of illness were fever (40 [98%] of 41 patients), cough (31 [76%]), and myalgia or fatigue (18 [44%]); less common symptoms were sputum production (11 [28%] of 39), headache (three [8%] of 38), haemoptysis (two [5%] of 39), and diarrhoea (one [3%] of 38). Dyspnoea developed in 22 (55%) of 40 patients (median time from illness onset to dyspnoea 8·0 days [IQR 5·0–13·0]). 26 (63%) of 41 patients had lymphopenia. All 41 patients had pneumonia with abnormal findings on chest CT. Complications included acute respiratory distress syndrome (12 [29%]), RNAaemia (six [15%]), acute cardiac injury (five [12%]) and secondary infection (four [10%]). 13 (32%) patients were admitted to an ICU and six (15%) died. Compared with non-ICU patients, ICU patients had higher plasma levels of IL2, IL7, IL10, GSCF, IP10, MCP1, MIP1A, and TNFα.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140673620301835

Novel coronavirus 2019 (2019 n-CoV) – Fact sheets

Novel coronavirus 2019 (2019 n-CoV) – Fact sheets

What is a coronavirus?
Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses, some cause illness in humans, and others cause illness in animals, such as bats, camels, and civets. Human coronaviruses cause mild illness, such the common cold.

Rarely, animal coronaviruses can evolve to infect and spread among humans, causing severe diseases such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) which emerged in 2002, and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) which emerged in 2012.

A novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is a new strain of coronavirus that has not been previously identified in humans.

What is 2019 novel coronavirus?
There is a new coronavirus affecting people who have recently been in the city of Wuhan, China. There is much more to learn about how it is spread, its severity, and other features associated with 2019-nCoV, and investigations are ongoing. At the moment, this coronavirus is called ‘novel coronavirus 2019’ or ‘2019-nCoV’.

Outbreaks of a novel coronavirus infections among people are always a public health concern. There is growing evidence that 2019-nCoV can spread from person to person in the community and in health care settings. There have been cases of 2019-nCoV reported in several Asian and other countries including Australia. The situation is evolving rapidly.

What are the symptoms?
Most case-patients have had fever, cough, and shortness of breath, with further evidence of pneumonia (chest infection).

Further investigation is required to assess whether there are undetected asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic cases.

How is it spread?
Early reports indicated that most of the cases had prior contact with a seafood and live animal market, suggesting an animal source of the outbreak. However, more recently, human to human transmission has been reported.

Further investigation is underway to confirm and describe the mode of transmission from animal sources, and the risk of human-to-human transmission.

Human to human transmission is most likely to be through direct contact with infectious patients, by respiratory droplets and by fomites (contaminated objects and surfaces), as is seen with other coronavirus infections including SARS and MERS.

Who is at risk?
People who are living or travelling to affected areas or who have had contact with other cases may be at risk of catching the disease. People with underlying illnesses that make them more vulnerable to respiratory disease, including those with diabetes, chronic lung disease, pre-existing kidney failure, people with suppressed immune systems and the elderly may be at a higher risk.

How is it prevented?
It’s likely that general prevention measures used for other coronavirus infections will also prevent infection with 2019-nCoV.

The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends measures to reduce the general risk of acute respiratory infections while travelling in or from affected areas by:

avoiding close contact with people suffering from acute respiratory infections;
frequent hand-washing, especially after direct contact with ill people or their environment;
avoiding close contact with live or dead farm or wild animals;
travellers with symptoms of acute respiratory infection should practice cough etiquette (maintain distance, cover coughs and sneezes with disposable tissues or clothing, and wash hands).
Travellers to China are already advised not to visit live bird and animal markets, including ‘wet’ markets, due to the risk of avian influenza.

There is currently no vaccine to prevent 2019-nCoV infections.

What should I do if I become unwell after travel in China?
If you become ill or feel unwell while travelling in China, you should not wait until you arrive back in Australia to seek medical assistance. Instead you should see a doctor or go to the local emergency department.

If you return from travel to China and feel unwell you should see your doctor or go to the emergency department to work out why you are ill, and you should mention your travel to China. Call ahead and explain that you might have been exposed to the novel coronavirus so that the doctor can make arrangements to see you quickly and safely.

How is it diagnosed?
Infection with 2019-nCoV is diagnosed by finding evidence of the virus in respiratory samples such as swabs from the throat or fluid from the lungs. Testing for 2019-nCoV is done in public health laboratories.

How is it treated?
There is currently no specific treatment for people who are sick with 2019-nCoV but general supportive medical care in hospital can be life-saving.

What is the public health response?
As of 23 January 2020, in Australia procedures to prevent the local spread of 2019-nCoV have been put in place.

Public health unit staff will investigate all cases to find out how the infection occurred, identify other people at risk of infection, implement control measures and provide other advice.

Further information
World Health Organization novel coronavirus information

NSW Health novel coronavirus alerts for GPs and hospital clinicians

For further information please call your local Public Health Unit on 1300 066 055

https://www.health.nsw.gov.au/Infectious/factsheets/Pages/novel-coronavirus.aspx

Kynurenine pathway, NAD+ synthesis, and mitochondrial function: Targeting tryptophan metabolism to promote longevity and healthspan – ScienceDirect

Kynurenine pathway, NAD+ synthesis, and mitochondrial function: Targeting tryptophan metabolism to promote longevity and healthspan – ScienceDirect

Highlights
• The kynurenine pathway has recently been identified as a promising target to increase healthy longevity.

• Targeted inhibition of kynurenine pathway activity may alleviate several pathological conditions and promote healthspan.

• Changes to the production and recycling of NAD+ is a likely mediator of the beneficial effects of kynurenine pathway interventions.

• Mitochondrial function and dynamics represent NAD+-dependent processes downstream of kynurenine metabolism that may mediate benefits during aging.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S053155651930765X

Aging and Caloric Restriction Modulate the DNA Methylation Profile of the Ribosomal RNA Locus in Human and Rat Liver

Aging and Caloric Restriction Modulate the DNA Methylation Profile of the Ribosomal RNA Locus in Human and Rat Liver

“We confirm previous findings, showing age-related hypermethylation, and describe, for the first time, that this gain in methylation also occurs in human hepatocytes. Furthermore, we show that age-related hypermethylation is enhanced in livers of rat upon CR at two and 10 months, and that at two months a trend towards the reduction of rRNA expression occurs. Collectively, our results suggest that CR modulates age-related regulation of methylation at the rDNA locus, thus providing an epigenetic readout of the pro-longevity effects of CR.”

https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/12/2/277